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Quality Management

Definition of Quality:
Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Some goals of quality programs include:
Fitness for use. (Is the product or service capable of being used?) Fitness for purpose. (Does the product or service meet its intended purpose?) Customer satisfaction. (Does the product or service meet the customer's expectations?) Conformance to the requirements. (Does the product or service conform to the requirements?)

Quality Management Processes

Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control

Quality Planning
The process of identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Input includes: Quality policy, scope statement, product description, standards and regulations, and other process Output. Methods used: benefit / cost analysis, benchmarking, flowcharting, and design of experiments Output includes: Quality Management Plan, operational definitions, checklists, and Input to other processes.

Quality Assurance
The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Input includes: Quality Management Plan, results of quality control measurements, and operational definitions. Methods used: quality planning tools and techniques and quality audits. Output includes: quality improvement.

What is Quality Assurance?

Quality Assurance (QA) is a process driven approach, it is a process to monitor and improve existing quality processes. It is a process of verifying whether the software product or services meets or exceeds the customer expectations. It ensures that the product or services are developed or implemented on agreed standards. Quality assurance ensures that the processes designed for the product development and services are effective enough to meet the objectives. It prevents software defects/errors.

Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is about engineering processesthat assure quality The keyword to pay attention to is processes. QA extends far beyond what we call the software testing team. The goal is to develop high quality products in the most efficient way, and it cannot be achieved by testing alone.

Quality Assurance
Defects occur because something somewhere did not happen the way it needed to. Testing might help in detecting those defects, but not in avoiding them. A defect once fixed cannot ensure that it wont occur again, even if the root cause is found. The process or the system that allowed that defect to occur is what needs to be re-engineered, and this is what is called quality assurance.

Quality Assurance
Everyone who is involved in the end to end development process, including analysts, developers, testers, managers etc., is an important player in assuring quality. In fact,QA might not involve testing at all.

Quality Assurance
If a company wanted to bring down its defects per million ratios, would testing alone be able to help achieve this goal? The answer is no, because in practice, not every defect can be found and fixed. However, if the processes that go into developing a product were reviewed and best practices were implemented, the load on testing team is likely to reduce. It is for this reason a lot of auditors focus on the processes were followed rather than focusing on the amount of testing an organization does.

Quality Control
The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Input includes: work results, Quality Management Plan, operational definitions, and checklists. Methods used include: inspection, control charts, pareto diagrams, statistical sampling, flowcharting, and trend analysis. Output includes: quality improvements, acceptance decisions, rework, completed checklists, and process adjustments

What is quality control?

Quality Control is concerned with the software product being developed. It measures and controls the quality of the software as it is being developed. Quality control system provides routine checks to ensure that the software is being developed correctly without errors. The Quality Control system identifies and addresses product errors/defects. Quality Control ensures that the final product is error free and satisfactory. Quality Control (QC) is often referred to as testing

Quality Control
Quality control is a set of activities that need to be performed in order to detect problems during production and before the product goes live. These activities ensure that final deliverable meets the specifications and quality standards set by the organization. QC often includes peer reviews, testing, code reviews etc.

Quality Control
In theory, quality control can be achieved with minimal testing. For example, a thorough review of source code and checks for known previously problems can reduce the possibility of defects and might be enough to meet the quality standards set by the organization. However in most cases, testing is the most important activity for quality control, but it is not the only activity.

Quality Control
Quality control is extremely important for ensuring that applications are bug free and meet the specifications and requirements, but QC might not always be the most efficient ways of ensuring quality. This is where Quality Assurance plays its role. But it is a concept that is often misunderstood by even the most experienced professions

What is verification?
Verification represents static testing techniques. Verification ensures that the software documents comply with the organizations standards, it is static analysis technique. Verification answer's the question Is the Software build according to the specifications.

Verification techniques
Feasibility reviews Requirements reviews Technical Reviews Walk through Inspections Formal reviews Informal reviews Peer reviews Static Code Analysis

What is software validation?

Validation represents dynamic testing techniques. Validation ensures that the software operates as planned in the requirements phase by executing it, running predefined test cases and measuring the output with expected results. Validation answers the question Did we build the software fit for purpose and does it provides the solution to the problem. Validation is concerned with evaluating the software, component or system to determine it meets end user requirements.

Validation techniques
Unit testing Integration testing System testing Integration testing

Major Approaches to Quality and QM

Deming Juran Crosby TQM Six Sigma ISO 9000

W Edwards Demming on Quality

Quality is an attribute of a product or service that can only be defined by the customer. Because of this its meaning is relative Quality or lack of it is one of the outcomes of the specific business process that produces a product or service Quality is produced by proper execution of such a process The job of quality management is to provide the system and the leadership to facilitate such proper execution

Joseph M. Juran: On Quality

Quality is fitness for use Balance between product features and products free from deficiencies Features must meet customer expectations Absence of deficiency is as essential as desired features in producing customer satisfaction So the ultimate test of quality is fitness for use by customers as reflected by customer satisfaction

Juran: The Trilogy of Quality Management

Quality Planning
developing a process to achieve goals involving customer satisfaction

Quality Control
holding onto gains, controlling variation,preventing waste

Quality Improvement
lowering cost of poor quality achieving innovation in performance

Philip B. Crosby: Quality

Conformance to requirements Must be defined in measurable terms and expressed as a clear target Either present or not present The Cost of Quality (COQ) = Price of Conformance (POC) + Price of NonConformance (NPOC) POC is cost of getting things done right the first time NPOC is the cost of waste

Crosby: Four Absolutes of Quality

Conformance to the requirements: This idea of quality must be integrated into the enterprise The system of quality is prevention (eliminating errors before they occur) The performance standard is zero defects The measure of quality is the PONC: the lower the PONC the more widespread the quality These four absolutes must be attained through strong discipline, complete leadership commitment, substantial resource allocation for training, tools, and appropriate personnel, and Crosbys 14-step approach to achieving conformance.

Total Quality Management: Quality

we define quality as consistently producing what the customer wants while reducing errors before and after delivery to the customer. More importantly, however, quality is not so much an outcome as a never ending process of continually improving the quality of what your company produces. David Chaudron qualitymanagement.com Close derivative of Demings approach to Quality

Total Quality Management

A structured system for satisfying employees, customers, and suppliers by integrating the business environment, continuous improvement, and breakthroughs with development, improvement, and maintenance cycles while changing organizational culture (from iqd.com). Great emphasis on needs and requirements analysis Uses a systems approach with strong emphasis onboth cultural and technological elements Strong emphasis on prevention and role of leadership Closely related to Demings approach to QM

Six Sigma: Quality

The value added by a productive endeavour Potential quality is the maximum possible value added per unit of input. Actual quality is the current value added per unit of input The difference between the two is waste Six Sigma is focused on reducing waste, cycle time, defects, and those costs that do not add value Goal is virtually error-free performance

Six Sigma: Key Elements

Implements proven quality principles and and a select few of the myriad QM techniques Performance is measured by the sigma level measure of variability in the companys business processes Uses a Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) model Define goals Measure existing system and processes Analyze (including stat analysis) & develop plan closing gap Improve system (Use stat methods to validate) Control the new system by institutionalizing it through new policies and rules

Six Sigma: Implementation approach

Senior leadership training in principles & tools for organization success, followed by SLs directing development of management infrastructure & innovation-friendly culture supporting Six Sigma. Develop systems establishing close communication with customers, employees, & suppliers. Includes rigorous methods and ways of overcoming cultural, policy, and procedural barriers Rigorously assess training needs, provide remedial basic skills education, and comprehensive training in systems improvement tools, techniques, and philosophies Develop framework for continuous process improvement along with system of indicators for monitoring progress and success. Projects for improving business performance linked to measurable financial results. Six Sigma projects conducted by individual employees & teams led by change agents (Master Black, Black, and Green Belts)

ISO 8402 and 9000: Quality and QM

The totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs ISO 8402 Quality management: activities performed to formulate and implement policies and programs intended to achieve quality. Examples:
quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement

ISO 9000: Eight Principles

Customer Focus (on needs and requirements) Leadership (establish unity of purpose, direction, environment for participation) Involvement of people (full) Process Approach (managing activities & resources) Systems Approach to Management (of inter-related processes) Continual Improvement (of processes and performance) Factual Approach to Decision Making (analysis of data/info) Mutually Beneficial supplier relationships

Commonalities in QM Approaches
QM approaches tend to view quality in terms of value produced by business processes for customers Reshape and control process to get quality Tend to take a systems, but not a complex adaptive systems approach Emphasize scientific approaches, empirical investigation, statistical analysis, formal knowledge processing Emphasize metrics and measurement View QM as an integrated set of activities designed to have a direct impact on all business processes and their inter-relations

Commonalities in QM Approaches
Use Technological and particularly IT tools and techniques Employ a wide range of analytical techniques and also social interaction and human intervention techniques Emphasizes strongly the elimination of errors before they happen: prevention Strong emphasis on cause-and-effect analysis suggesting a deterministic view of quality Strong emphasis on leadership and its role in QM Widespread emphasis on organizational learning framework to produce knowledge needed for achieving quality

Quality Concepts
Zero Defects
Implies that there is no tolerance for errors within the system. The goal of all processes is to avoid defects in the product or service. Similar to six sigma: almost zero defects

The Customer is the Next Person in the Process

The internal organization has a system that ensures the product or service is transferred to the next person in the process in a complete and correct manner. The product or service being built is transferred to another internal party only after it meets all the specifications and all actions at the current work station. Avoids incorrectly assembled components and poor workmanship.

Quality Concepts
Do the Right Thing Right the First Time (DTRTRTFT)
Implies that it is easier and less costly to do the work right the first time than it is to do it the second time. Entails the training of personnel to ensure sufficient skills and tools to correctly complete the work.

Continuous Improvement Process (CIP) (From Japanese word, Kaizen)

A sustained, gradual change to improve the situation. Differs from innovation -- does not make a sudden jump to a plateau where it matures over time. Focuses on 11 principles: constancy of purpose, commitment to quality, customer focus and involvement, process orientation, continuous improvement, system-centered management, investment in knowledge, teamwork, conservation of human resources, total involvement, and perpetual commitment.

Project Characteristics/Attributes that bear on quality

Producibility (technology required) Ability of a product or service to be produced within the existing technology, human resources, skills, knowledge, and materials at a cost compatible with market expectations. Producibility is one of the most critical aspects of developing any new product. Usability (effort expended to use) The ability of a product to perform its intended function for the specified user under the prescribed conditions. Usability is determined by examining performance, function and condition of a product.

Project Characteristics/Attributes that bear on quality

Reliability (MTBF) The degree to which a unit of equipment performs its intended function under specified conditions for a specified period of time. Computed by 2 methods of Mean-Time-Between-Failure (MTBF):
Predicted MTBF: Based on a mathematical computation of a component failure using a tree diagram to determine sequential failure aspects of the component rated periods. Least desirable method because it cannot account for environmental variations that can degrade components to lower rates. Actual MTBF: Use of field collected data to compute the failures under realistic operating conditions to find the average time between failure. The actual reliability will seldom be the same as the predicted reliability

Project Characteristics/Attributes that bear on quality

Maintainability (Mean-Time-To-Repair: MTTR) The ability of a unit to be restored within a specified time to its performance capability under the environmental operating conditions within a specified, average period of time. Availability (Probability of performance) The probability of a product being capable of performing a required function under the specified conditions when called upon. The key parts of availability are reliability and maintainability. Operability (Expected conditional use) The ability of a product to be operated by human resources for specified periods of time under given conditions without significant degradation of the output. Flexibility (Expected variable use) The ability of a product to be used for different purposes at different capacities and under different conditions.

Project Characteristics/Attributes that bear on quality

Social Acceptability (Environment and safety)
The degree of compatibility between the characteristics of a product or service and the prevailing values and expectations of the relevant society The degree to which a public accepts a product for use.

Affordability (Return for quality required)

The ability to develop, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of a product over its life.

Cost of Quality
Cost of quality is the total price of all efforts to achieve product or service quality. This includes all work to build a product or service that conforms to the requirements as well as all work resulting from nonconformance to the requirements. The typical project should have a goal of between 3-5% of the total value as the cost of a quality program depending on the type of project and its total dollar value.
Cost to build right the first time Training programs Statistical Process Control (SPC) Costs

Cost of a quality system is often viewed as a negative cost because errors in work have been traditionally accepted as a cost of doing business.

Cost of Conformance
Planning Training and indoctrination Process control Field testing Product design validation Process validation Test and evaluation Quality audits Maintenance and calibration

Cost of Nonconformance
Scrap Rework Expediting Additional material or inventory Warranty repairs or service Complaint handling Liability judgments Product recalls Product corrective actions

Cost of Non-Quality
Cost of non-quality is estimated to be 1220% of sales. Waste of time and materials Rework of poor quality products Additional material Delays in schedule Product and service image Corporate image

Major Cost Categories of Quality

Prevention Cost - cost to plan and execute a project so that it will be error-free Appraisal Cost - cost of evaluating the processes and the Output of the processes to ensure the product is error-free Internal Failure Cost - cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product External Failure Cost - cost incurred due to errors detected by the customer. This includes warranty cost, field service personnel training cost, complaint handling, and future business losses. Measurement and Test Equipment - capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities.

Opportunities for Reducing Cost

Just-in-Time - concept of zero inventory in a manufacturing plant. Reduces cost of storing and moving parts; cost of inventory; cost of parts damaged through handling, etc. Product Life Cycle Cost - concept of reducing overall product life cycle cost by linking the cost areas of the product life cycle (R&D, acquisition, and operations and maintenance) and considering each one's cost implications for the other. Product Maturity - Identifying, documenting, and correcting failures early helps products achieve stability earlier in the life cycle.

Opportunities for Reducing Cost

Areas of Waste in Projects

Waste in rejects of completed work Waste in design flaws Waste in work-in-process Waste in motion for manpower (under-trained employee) Waste in management (Improper direction of work) Waste in manpower (Misplaced or waiting workers) Waste in facilities (Ordering excess material) Waste in expenses (Unnecessary meetings, travel)

Quality and People in Project Management

Management defines type and amount of work Management is 85% responsible for quality The employee can only assume responsibility for meeting the requirements of completing the work when the employee: Knows what's expected to meet the specifications Knows how to perform the functions to meet the specifications Has adequate tools to perform the function Is able to measure the performance during the process Is able to adjust the process to match the desired outcome

Quality and People in Project Management

Project quality team consists of:
Senior Management Project Manager Project Staff Customer Vendors, suppliers, and contractors Regulatory Agencies

Quality and People in Project Management

Reviews & Audits
Management reviews determine the status, progress made, problems, and solutions Peer reviews determine whether proposed or completed work meets the requirements Competency center reviews are used to validate documentation, studies, and proposed technical solutions to problems. Fitness reviews and audits determine the fitness of a product or part of a project. (addresses specific issues)

The collection of quantitative data for statistical analysis is the basis for proactive Management by FACT rather than by EXCEPTION. Management by exception lets errors and defects happen before Management intervention.