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# Datums & Coordinate Systems

## Revenge of the Shift

Objective
Identify different datums
Identify different coordinate systems

## Setting The Stage

GPS is rigid collects one way GIS is flexible designed to share

#1 reason GPS data doesnt line up in GIS - coordinate system/datum mismatch How do we fix it? Educate

Coordinate Systems
Latitude and Longitude Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

## Lat / Long Coordinate System

Latitude
90N
Parallels of latitude
north latitude

equator

0 latitude

south latitude

## Lat / Long Coordinate System

Longitude
Grenwich, England

Meridians of longitude

0 longitude
Prime Meridian

West Longitude

East longitude

## UTM Coordinate Systems

A plane coordinate system to relate the coordinates of points on earths curved surface with the coordinates of the same points on a plane or flat surface

## UTM Zones in North America

180 174 168 162 156 150 144 138 132 126 120 114 108 102 96 90 84 78 72 66 60 54 48

## Figure of the Earth

Best-fit ellipsoid
(e.g., GRS-80, WGS-84)

## Datum and Ellipsoids

Datum - represented by ellipsoid
Reference ellipsoid examples:
Clarke 1866 GRS 80 WGS 84

## Common Geographic Datums

Datum Origin on Surface of Earth

## Ellipsoid Model based on less precise surveys

Invented Space Travel Increasing accuracy of surveys

## Shift from optical surveys to a mathematical model of the Earths shape

The result is a specific point on the landscape can take on multiple meanings

## GPS Datum: WGS 84

Origin is at the Earths center of mass (geocentric) This is the datum used for the NAVSTAR GPS satellites

WGS84:

## WGS84 ellipsoid origin center of earth

The origins of the WGS84 and NAD83 ellipsoids are at the center of the earths mass, which makes them ideal for a GPS datum

Known as Datum Adjustments or Epochs

WGS84

33 to 700 feet

710 Feet

## Differences between Datums

WGS84 = ITRF00

Reference Frames
Differentially corrected GPS data are always in terms of the corrections sources reference frame.

In Arcata we are using CORS station data and therefore must apply the correct datum transform between the GPS data and your GIS

## Mapping / Coordinate System

For Arcata BLM Office in Pathfinder Office

CORS ITRF00

Using CORS96

## When Do Datums/Coordinate Systems Matter?

PFO Map View
Coordinate system

Terrasync
Coordinate System

Export Utility
Shape Export Coordinate System

ArcGIS Catalog
Define Projection

ArcGIS
Data Frame Properties Coordinate System Tab

Summary:

## Good handouts in <cd>/references

Conclusion
Now that youve learned there are differences it will be important that you learn how to Make it Match
Pre-Field Day 2

Datum Transforms
Fridays Test against Truth

## You are here

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Matching Datums
I use GPS for all my mapping. Im using NAD83(1986)

Im using WGS84

## Revenge of the Shift

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Objective
Overview of Matching Datums and Coordinate Systems in Pathfinder Office and Data Transfer

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Rasters Vectors

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## Matching Data Steps

Know what it is Metadata helps Tell Pathfinder Office the correct Datum and Coordinate System

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## When Do Datums/Coordinate Systems Matter?

PFO Map View
Coordinate system

Terrasync
Coordinate System

Export Utility
Shape Export Coordinate System

ArcGIS Catalog
Define Projection

ArcGIS
Data Frame Properties Coordinate System Tab
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## Todays Background Image

Humboldt Campus Map
PDF obtained from Website Converted to TIFF Co-registered 12 control points between Ortho
~ Depending on accuracy of Ortho, maybe +/- 20 meters in horizontal accuracy
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## Coordinate System: UTM Zone 10N Datum: NAD 83 (CONUS)

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Next Step
Data Transfer background imagery to the GeoCE device

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## You are here

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Datum Transforms
Getting it Right in Pathfinder Office

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Objective
Identify the proper reference frame for different differential sources

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## Prior to this Presentation

You occupied Truth Collected at least one Point feature

## Now we can compare!

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Verification of accuracy is essential to gain confidence

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Accuracy Slides

## Today is Your Chance to Test

First Some Background

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The origins of the WGS84 and NAD83 ellipsoids are at the center of the earths mass, which makes them ideal for a GPS datum

## Over Time Datums Have Grown Apart

WGS84

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Known as Datum Adjustments or Epochs WGS84 (G1150) most current version

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## Differences between Datums

WGS84 = ITRF00

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Reference Frames
CORS Post Process = ITRF00 Autonomous GPS = WGS84 = ITRF00 WAAS = ITRF00

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## NAD 83 (CORS96) to WGS-84 (G1150)

This is essentially the CORS or WAAS Reference Frame
WGS-84 (G1150) = ITRF 00 (2001.0)

TRUTH
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Reference
Locate this support doc and follow along
2nd to last reference in Notebook

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## Since our Reference Frame is CORS

Our GPS data is corrected against a source that is in WGS84 or ITRF00

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## Export Out as NAD83 (CONUS) CORS96

The reason behind our class standard

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## To Keep Shifts at Bay

Verify reference frame of differential source

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## To Keep Shifts at Bay

Apply the correct datum transform before the Export depending on your GIS needs

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Summary
Identified the proper reference frame for different differential sources

## Learned how to apply the correct datum transformation inside PFO

Keep Shifts at Bay by verifying and using the right transform
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## If You Use WAAS?

Since WAAS is ITRF use NAD 1983 (Conus) CORS96

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