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Datums & Coordinate Systems

Revenge of the Shift

Objective
Identify different datums
Identify different coordinate systems

Setting The Stage


GPS is rigid collects one way GIS is flexible designed to share

#1 reason GPS data doesnt line up in GIS - coordinate system/datum mismatch How do we fix it? Educate

Coordinate Systems
Latitude and Longitude Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

Lat / Long Coordinate System

Latitude
90N
Parallels of latitude
north latitude

equator

0 latitude

south latitude

Lat / Long Coordinate System

Longitude
Grenwich, England

Meridians of longitude

0 longitude
Prime Meridian

West Longitude

East longitude

UTM Coordinate Systems


A plane coordinate system to relate the coordinates of points on earths curved surface with the coordinates of the same points on a plane or flat surface

Allows projection of a spherical surface onto a flat surface

UTM Zones in North America


180 174 168 162 156 150 144 138 132 126 120 114 108 102 96 90 84 78 72 66 60 54 48

Figure of the Earth


Best-fit ellipsoid
(e.g., GRS-80, WGS-84)

Datum and Ellipsoids


Datum - represented by ellipsoid
Reference ellipsoid examples:
Clarke 1866 GRS 80 WGS 84

Common Geographic Datums


NAD27 NAD83 WGS84 ITRF00

NAD27:
Datum Origin on Surface of Earth

Clarke 1866 ellipsoid origin in Kansas

Ellipsoid Model based on less precise surveys

NAD27: Leaving Behind


Invented Space Travel Increasing accuracy of surveys

Shift from optical surveys to a mathematical model of the Earths shape


The result is a specific point on the landscape can take on multiple meanings

GPS Datum: WGS 84

Origin is at the Earths center of mass (geocentric) This is the datum used for the NAVSTAR GPS satellites

WGS84:

WGS84 ellipsoid origin center of earth

The origins of the WGS84 and NAD83 ellipsoids are at the center of the earths mass, which makes them ideal for a GPS datum

Datum Adjustments
Known as Datum Adjustments or Epochs

WGS84 (G1150) most current version


Original NAD83 = NAD83 (1986)
NAD83 (1992) NAD83 (2002)

Most Current NAD83


NAD83 (CORS96) (Epoch 2003.00)

NAD83

Over Time Datums Have Grown Apart


WGS84

NAD83 = WGS84

Differences between Datums


NAD27 NAD83 (1986)

33 to 700 feet

Shift Happens - Redmond OR 2005 Example


710 Feet

Differences between Datums


WGS84 = ITRF00
about 2cm

NAD83 (CORS96) WGS84


about 4.3 feet

Reference Frames
Differentially corrected GPS data are always in terms of the corrections sources reference frame.

In Arcata we are using CORS station data and therefore must apply the correct datum transform between the GPS data and your GIS

Mapping / Coordinate System


For Arcata BLM Office in Pathfinder Office

Coordinate System: UTM Zone 10N Datum: NAD 83 (CONUS) CORS96

GIS In NAD83

Reason Were Using NAD83 (CONUS) CORS96


CORS ITRF00

Using CORS96

When Do Datums/Coordinate Systems Matter?


PFO Map View
Coordinate system

Terrasync
Coordinate System

Export Utility
Shape Export Coordinate System

ArcGIS Catalog
Define Projection

ArcGIS
Data Frame Properties Coordinate System Tab

GPS Datum Tips


Summary:
Check, check, check ASK your GIS Specialist

Good handouts in <cd>/references

Conclusion
Now that youve learned there are differences it will be important that you learn how to Make it Match
Pre-Field Day 2

Datum Transforms
Fridays Test against Truth

You are here

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Matching Datums
I use GPS for all my mapping. Im using NAD83(1986)

Im using WGS84

Revenge of the Shift

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Objective
Overview of Matching Datums and Coordinate Systems in Pathfinder Office and Data Transfer

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Taking GIS out in the Field


Rasters Vectors

All require a projection (coordinate system) defined ahead of time

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Matching Data Steps


Know what it is Metadata helps Tell Pathfinder Office the correct Datum and Coordinate System

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When Do Datums/Coordinate Systems Matter?


PFO Map View
Coordinate system

Terrasync
Coordinate System

Export Utility
Shape Export Coordinate System

ArcGIS Catalog
Define Projection

ArcGIS
Data Frame Properties Coordinate System Tab
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Todays Background Image


Humboldt Campus Map
PDF obtained from Website Converted to TIFF Co-registered 12 control points between Ortho
~ Depending on accuracy of Ortho, maybe +/- 20 meters in horizontal accuracy
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Coordinate System and Datum

Coordinate System: UTM Zone 10N Datum: NAD 83 (CONUS)


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Next Step
Data Transfer background imagery to the GeoCE device

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You are here

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Datum Transforms
Getting it Right in Pathfinder Office

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Objective
Identify the proper reference frame for different differential sources

Learn how to apply the correct datum transformation inside PFO

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Prior to this Presentation


You occupied Truth Collected at least one Point feature

Now we can compare!

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Mapping Grade GPS Accuracy


Verification of accuracy is essential to gain confidence

We have to ensure we transform the data correctly to GIS

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Accuracy Slides

Using Real Data.

Today is Your Chance to Test


First Some Background

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NAD83 Developed Using WGS84

The origins of the WGS84 and NAD83 ellipsoids are at the center of the earths mass, which makes them ideal for a GPS datum

NAD83

Over Time Datums Have Grown Apart


WGS84

NAD83 = WGS84

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Datum Adjustments
Known as Datum Adjustments or Epochs WGS84 (G1150) most current version

Most Current NAD83


NAD83 (CORS96) (Epoch 2003.00)
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Differences between Datums


WGS84 = ITRF00
about 2cm

NAD83 (CORS96) WGS84


about 4.3 feet

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Reference Frames
CORS Post Process = ITRF00 Autonomous GPS = WGS84 = ITRF00 WAAS = ITRF00

NDGPS (Radio DGPS) = NAD83 (CORS96) OMNISTAR (Satellite DGPS) = NAD83 (CORS96)

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NAD 83 (CORS96) to WGS-84 (G1150)


This is essentially the CORS or WAAS Reference Frame
WGS-84 (G1150) = ITRF 00 (2001.0)

TRUTH
NAD 83 (2003.0) Anchorage
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Reference
Locate this support doc and follow along
2nd to last reference in Notebook

SprtNote_PFO-GPSA_NAD83Datum.pdf

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This Training Used Scenario 2

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Since our Reference Frame is CORS


Our GPS data is corrected against a source that is in WGS84 or ITRF00

And our GIS is in NAD83 We therefore define an ITRF00 to NAD83 Transform


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Export Out as NAD83 (CONUS) CORS96


The reason behind our class standard

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To Keep Shifts at Bay


Verify reference frame of differential source

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To Keep Shifts at Bay


Apply the correct datum transform before the Export depending on your GIS needs

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Summary
Identified the proper reference frame for different differential sources

Learned how to apply the correct datum transformation inside PFO


Keep Shifts at Bay by verifying and using the right transform
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If You Use WAAS?


Since WAAS is ITRF use NAD 1983 (Conus) CORS96

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If You Use Coast Guard Beacon?


Since NDGPS is already in NAD83 (CORS96) use NAD 1983 (Conus)

No need to apply a transform.

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You are here

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