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Design of Modern Numerical Protective Relay Equipment

Richard Price Hardware Design Team Leader

Design of Modern Protective Relaying Equipment


Lecture Outline
What are protective relays and why do we need them? What technologies have been employed What are the additional benefits of modern protective relays What might the future hold Discussions

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What is a protection relay ?

A big expensive reusable fuse !


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Protective Relays Why bother ?

- -P4

Protective Relay Principles of Operation


Source

I V

Load

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Protective Relays Technologies Employed (1)

ELECTROMECHANICAL (1950)
Attracted armature or induction disc type elements to implement the protection functions. An electromagnetic force causes the mechanical operation of the relay.

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Protective Relays Technologies Employed (2)


STATIC (1970)
Maturing of transistor technology
Static implies that the relay does not have moving parts Discrete electronic components (generally analogue devices) used for creation of the operating characteristics. Trip output contacts would generally be of attracted armature type.

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Protective Relays Technologies Employed (3) DIGITAL (1980)


Used the then new microprocessor technologies Generally an analogue front end

Protection function logic is implemented in the microprocessor.


The only numerical states within the relay are high/low logic (logic one or zero) rather than mathematical algorithms

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Protective Relays Technologies Employed (4) NUMERICAL (Today)


Used exclusively in todays protection relays Inputs sampled and converted into digital numerical data Complex mathematical algorithms generate the relay operating characteristics. The distinction from digital relays is that numerical relays use digital signal processing (DSP). Also characterised by the sophisticated communications facilities they offer.

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Protective Relay Technologies Examples

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Protective Relay Principal Input/Output Interfaces

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Protective Relay Design Key Elements - implementation


Power Supply Digital Outputs (Relays) Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Protective Relay Design - Analogue Inputs


Power Supply Digital Outputs (Relays) Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Analogue Inputs Traditional Approach Sequential Sampling

V
10110111...

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Sequential Sampling Advantages / Disadvantages


Advantages
Low cost solution Single data stream, sampling frequency Relatively slow Signal Skew

Disadvantages

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Analogue Inputs New Technologies Simultaneous Sampling

Buffering

Re-sampling Re-sampling Data Transmission 10110111...

I
Buffering Re-sampling Re-sampling

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Simultaneous Sampling Advantages / Disadvantages


Advantages

Disadvantages

Multiple sampling rates Higher sampling frequencies Signal Pre-conditioning Higher hardware costs

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Sampling Issues problems - Aliasing effects

Sampling element

Actual signal

Apparent signal Sample points


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Input signal distortion problems - Conversion errors


10110111...

Dynamic Range, Quantisation Effects

12 bit ADC equivalent to 4096 numbers For dynamic range of 64 In In = count 32 Resolution - 30mA (In = 1A) For 16 bit, resolution - 2mA

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Signal filtering

Anti aliasing I Analogue to digital conversion

Processed Data I1 Mag, I2 Mag, Digital filter Ix Mag,

Anti aliasing
V

n samples per cycle

V1 Mag,
Vy Mag,

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Frequency Response of 1 Cycle Fourier Filter (8 Sample/Cycle)


Gain 1 Fourier Filter
H/W Low Pass Filter

Alias of Fundamental

0 f 0 2f0 3f0 4f0 5f0 6f0 7f0 8f0 9f0 Frequency


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Protective Relay Design Digital Inputs

Power Supply

Digital Outputs (Relays)

Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus

Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Digital Inputs Considerations

Wetting currents Burden Isolation How many ? How fast ? Thermal dissipation

Safety

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Digital Inputs Circuit Designs


Passive Opto Circuit LPF 0,1 Multiple variants Single voltage I/P Simple / low cost OK for Trip circuit supervision applications Single variant Wide Range I/P Single threshold Power Voltage Single variant Wide Range I/P Low Power Multiple thresholds Measurements Settable Complex / higher cost

Constant Current Opto Circuit LPF Active Measurement Opto Circuit


AUX PSU
PWM Measurement Circuit

0,1

Signal Processing

Voltage Measurement Or Status + Settings

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Protective Relay Design Digital Outputs


Power Supply Digital Outputs Digital Inputs Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

(Relays)

(Optos)
Interconnection Bus

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Digital Outputs Considerations

Contact rating Isolation How many ? How fast ? Thermal dissipation Safety

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Digital Outputs Circuit Designs


Standard Relay Circuit Op time ~10ms

Data
Accelerated Relay Circuit 20V 8V

Op time ~4ms

Data
Static Assisted Output Circuit 20V 8V

12V

Op time <0.5ms High break capability

Data
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12V

Protective Relay Design Additional I/O


Power Supply Digital Outputs (Relays) Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Additional I/O

Current Loop I/O Temperature Measurement (RTDs) Time Synchronisation (IRIG-B) Protection Communications
Current Differential Inter-tripping

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Protective Relay Design User Interface


Power Supply Digital Outputs (Relays) Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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User Interface

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Protective Relay Design - Computing Unit


Power Supply Digital Outputs (Relays) Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Computing Unit - Hardware


Microprocessor(s) Memory
(Flash) EPROM RAM NV RAM

Time synchronisation Communications drivers Battery back-up

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Protective Relay Design - Computing Unit


Power Supply Digital Outputs (Relays) Digital Inputs (Optos) Interconnection Bus Analogue to Digital Conversion

Analogue Inputs

Additional I/O

Signal Processing

User Interface (HMI)

Communications

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Computing Unit - S/W Processes


Control of analogue acquisition Process raw data in magnitude & phase Sample of plant status I/Ps Execute protection algorithms

Combine protection outputs and plant status to control outputs (scheme logic)
Control user interface Implement remote communications protocols

Log events and disturbances

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Protective Relay Software Design

Application Software

Operating Communications Platform


BIOS Hardware
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Computing Unit - Requirements

Microprocessor requires sufficient power to

Typical maximum processor loading <70% quiescent, <90% during faults

Process samples in real time before next sample is taken Run the protection algorithms often enough to meet the requirements for speed of operation Service communications tasks Ensure background tasks have sufficient priority (ie user interface)

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Computing Unit Performance


2005
Px40+

2000 Year

Px40
Px20 K Series

1995
1990
MCGG L Series

1980

0.1

10

100

Millions of Instructions per second (MIPS)

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Computing Unit Example


Microprocessor : 32 bit floating point 75 MIPS Memory
(Flash) EPROM RAM NV RAM : 4 M bytes : 2 M bytes : 4 M bytes

Software

: >700 000 lines code

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Protective Relaying Equipment Product Certification

Performance requirements

International IEC 60255, ANSI National BS, DIN etc CE marking (Europe)
LVD EMC

Mandatory requirements

UL (US, Canada)

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Numerical Relays Physical Structure

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Numerical Relays

Additional Features

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Numerical Relays - what are the benefits ?


Additional features found in numerical relays
Multiple functions in same relay Fault location Self diagnostics & commissioning tools Programmable scheme logic / customisation Intelligent Communications Fault recording Re-configurable inputs and outputs Monitoring and control of circuit breakers Instrumentation

Reliability, repeatability, .

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Numerical Relays

Fault Location

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Fault location

16%

3.8 16km

10miles

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Numerical Relays

Self Diagnostics & Commissioning Tools

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Self Diagnostics & Commissioning


Self diagnostics Power-on diagnostics Continuous self-monitoring Condition based maintenance Commissioning features available to user Input states Output states Internal logic status Measurements

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Numerical Relays

Programmability & Customisation

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Customisation : Programmable Scheme Logic

Optos

Relay contacts

Protection elements

& &

Gate Logic

1
Timers

Control Fixed scheme logic

LEDs User programmable scheme logic

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Trip Circuit Monitoring

Trip Circuit breaker Trip Opto 52a Trip coil

52b

Opto

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Trip Circuit Monitoring Using Programmable Scheme Logic

Trip Circuit Fail mapped to


Contact, LED and Alarm Indication
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Numerical Relays

Off-line Analysis

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Disturbance Records
8 Analogue channels
32 Digital channels Sample 12 times per cycle

Prefault

Configurable trigger source


Up to 20 Records can be stored Battery backed memory Extended recording time MiCOM S1 saves file in the COMTRADE format
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Variable trigger point

The duration of each record can be up to 10.5s

Disturbance analysis software

A-GND Fault, Fault Inception Trip Command

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Numerical Relays

Communications

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Remote Communications Traditional Solutions


Courier Modbus DNP3.0 IEC60870-5-103 . . .

Digital Control Systems

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Remote Communications Overall substation Communications


Switch

LAN or WAN
Switch

Ethernet Communications

IEC61850 Tunnelling of traditional communications (DNP3)

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Overall Substation Communications IEC61850


Peer to Peer Fast I/O Communications Sampled Analogue Values
GOOSE (Generic Object Orientated Substation Events) IEC61850-9-2

IEC61850 Data Model

Time Synchronisation

Status Monitoring Event Reporting (Un-buffered / Buffered) Control Services (CB Tripping/Closing) SNTP (Simple network Time Protocol) IEEE1588 (Precision Time Protocol)

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Overall Substation Communications Redundancy


PC Relay Switch Relay Relay Switch Relay PC

Switch
Relay

Relay

Ring Topology

Current - Areva Self Healing Protocol New - HSR (High availability seamless ring)

Star Topology

Current - RSTP New - PRP (Parallel Redundancy Protocol)

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Overall Substation Communications Cyber Security


Standards
NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation) IEEE1686 Security of relays and substations IEC62351 Security of communications Defined password schemes Password blocking Password encryption Unused port disabling

Security

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Protection & Control Equipment Looking Forward


Requirements
Protection enhancements Greater Integration (Protection, Control & Monitoring) Programmability and customisation Off-line analysis Communications Security Expert systems / Smart Grids More processing power Higher sampling / multiple sampling More I/O Increased communications capabilities

Implementation

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Modern Numeric Protection Benefits Summary


Bay Monitoring & Control Comprehensive Protection Instrumentation Self Diagnostics & Commissioning Tools Communications Programmability & Customisation

Fault Analysis Tools

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