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Defending the body from disease

Pathogens are things that cause disease. There are two main types
Bacteria Viruses

Pathogens

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Microscopic Living cells (some are harmless)

Damage cells by producing toxins


Grow very quickly Killed by antibiotics

Genetic info inside a protein coat (not living) Damage cells by infecting them then bursting out Not affected by antibiotics Examples: colds, flu, polio, chicken pox

Examples: food poisoning, tetanus, sore throats

Pathogens:our defence against them


Our bodies have four major defence mechanisms against invading pathogens

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The skin acts as a barrier

The breathing organs produce mucus to cover the lining of these organs and trap the microbes

If our skin is cut platelets seal the wound by clotting

Our blood contains white blood cells

Fighting disease
White blood cells fight pathogens

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White blood cells do 3 things:


1) They eat the pathogen 2) They produce ANTIBODIES to fight the pathogens 3) The produce ANTITOXINS to neutralise the poisons produced by pathogens

Producing antibodies
Youre going down

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Step 1: The white blood cell sees the pathogen

Step 2: The cell produces antibodies to fit the pathogen

Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the pathogens and cause them to clump

Step 4: The pathogens are eaten by the white blood cells

Vaccines
A small amount of the pathogen is given to someone They make specific ANTIBODIES to it The ANTIBODIES kill/remove the pathogen The white blood cell which makes that antibody remains in the blood forever If you become infected with the same pathogen again, the antibodies are made very quickly

Vaccines: Pros and cons


Pros Prevents you suffering from a serious disease May reduce the cost of treatments of diseases for hospitals Cons May have side effects

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The pathogen may become resistant

Using Antibiotics
1

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Antibiotics can be used to kill bacteria but.... ) Bacteria can become resistant to them so they do not work anymore (e.g. MRSA- a superbug)

2) Antibiotics do not kill viruses

Antibiotic resistance

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Bacteria can change (mutate) to become resistant to antibiotics


Bacteria 1) Variation some strains of bacteria are resistant and some arent. 2) Competition The non-resistant bacteria are killed by the antibiotic. 3) Survival of the fittest the resistant bacteria survive.

Antibiotic

4) Passing on of genes the resistant bacteria reproduce and pass on their resistance genes to their offspring. This is how MRSA developed

Using Painkillers

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Painkillers can be used to treat the symptoms of disease but do not kill the pathogen causing it

Aspirin Paracetamol Ibuprofen

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Guten tag. My name is Ignaz Semmelweiss. In the mid-19th century I realised that many deaths in hospitals could be avoided by insisting on clean hands and equipment. As a result of my work, deaths in my wards fell from 12% to 1%.

Ignaz Semmelweiss 1818-1865

Experiments about the spread of infection


Year Amount of hand wash solution used (litres per 1000 patient days) 3.5 6.9 10.9 MRSA infections per 100 patients 0.50 0.48 0.25 1993 1995 1997

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These results show that using hand wash solution regularly reduces the numbers of infections from superbugs in hospitals: the pathogens are destroyed

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Defending the body from disease

Pathogens are things that cause disease. There are two main types
1.__________ 2. ________

Pathogens

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Damage cells by ______ _____ Killed by ________ Examples:

Damage cells by ....... Not affected by ________ Examples:

Pathogens:our defence against them


Our bodies have four major defence mechanisms against invading microbes:

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The _____ acts as a barrier


If our skin is cut ______ seal the wound by clotting

The breathing organs produce _____ to cover the lining of these organs and trap the ________
Our blood contains ______ blood cells

Fighting disease
WHITE BLOOD CELLS:
White blood cells do 3 things: 1) They eat the _________

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2) They produce A_________ to fight the pathogen


3) The produce __________ to neutralise the poisons produced by pathogens

Producing antibodies
Youre going down

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Step 1: The white blood cell sees the _________

Step 2: The cell produces ________ to fit the pathogen

Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the _______ and cause them to clump

Step 4: The pathogens are eaten by the ____ ____ __

Vaccines
A small amount of the ______ is given to the person The person makes specific ________ The antibodies kill the ______ The _______ which makes the _______ stays in the blood forever

Using Antibiotics
1

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Antibiotics can be used to kill bacteria but.... ) Bacteria can become _______ to them so they do not work anymore (e.g. ______- a superbug)

2) Antibiotics do not kill ______

Antibiotic resistance

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Bacteria can change (mutate) to become resistant to antibiotics


Bacteria 1) V______ some strains of bacteria are resistant and some arent. 2) C______ The non-resistant bacteria are killed by the antibiotic. 3) Survival of the fittest the resistant bacteria survive.

Antibiotic

4) Passing on of _____ the resistant bacteria reproduce and pass on their resistance genes to their offspring.

Experiments about the spread of infection


Year Amount of hand wash solution used (litres per 1000 patient days) 3.5 6.9 10.9 MRSA infections per 100 patients 0.50 0.48 0.25 1993 1995 1997

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What do these results show about how the use of hand wash is related to the spread of infection? Who carried out initial experiments on this?

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Defending the body from disease

Pathogens are things that cause disease. There are two main types
Bacteria Viruses

Pathogens

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What do you know about bacteria?

What do you know about viruses?

Microbes: our defence against them


Our bodies have four major defence mechanisms against invading microbes:

Fighting disease
If a pathogen enters our body, white blood cells do three things to fight it.... 1.

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2.
3.

Producing antibodies
Put these steps in order..
Step : The cell produces antibodies to fit the pathogen

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Step : The antibodies fit onto the pathogens and cause them to clump

Step : The pathogens are eaten by the white blood cells

Step : The white blood cell sees the pathogen (microbe)

Using Antibiotics

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Give 2 problems associated with the use of antibiotics

1)

2)

Antibiotic resistance

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Bacteria can change (mutate) to become resistant to antibiotics


Bacteria 1) Variation 2) Competition 3) Survival of the fittest 4) Passing on of genes Give an example of a disease which has evolved this way

Antibiotic

What experiments did I do? What did I find out?

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How has this changed things in hospitals?

Ignaz Semmelweiss 1818-1865

Experiments about the spread of infection


Year Amount of hand wash solution used (litres per 1000 patient days) 3.5 6.9 10.9 MRSA infections per 100 patients 0.50 0.48 0.25 1993 1995 1997

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What is the Independent variable? What is the Dependant variable? Write a conclusion for these results

Vaccines
Describe how a vaccine works...

Give one advantage and one disadvantage of vaccines...