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Knowledge Sharing

On Centrifugal Pump

Content
1. Introduction 2. Some Basics of Hydraulics 3. Bernoulli`s Theorem 4. Head, Discharge & Pressure of the pump.

5.Types of Impellers
6. Principal of the Centrifugal Pump.

1. Introduction
The credit for making first centrifugal pump goes to JOHANN GARDEN in 1680 which consist of a disc with four straight radical blades which revolved within a casing .

What is Pumping ?
Pumping is the process of adding energy to the fluid to move it from one point to another or raising its pressure or to transfer from a low pressure region to a higher pressure region.

2. Some Basics of Hydraulics


1.Properties of Matter :
a) Specific Weight (w) :
Specific weight of a substance is the weight per unit of volume . i.e Specific Weight w = weight / volume -- in Kg/M3

b) Density :
Density is the mass of the substance per unit of volume . i.e Density = mass /volume in grams/ cm3. Relationship in above two is : As w =W/V =mg/V =density x g ( gravity)

2. Some Basics of Hydraulics


c) Specific Gravity ( r) :
Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of given volume of the solid / liquid of that of an equal volume of water at 4Deg. C. This ratio has no unit . i.e r = weight (solid) / Weight (liquid)

d) Viscosity :
It is the property of a liquid which resists the flow of the liquid .

Viscosity decreases with rise in temperature.


Water Viscosity at 15.6 Deg. C is 1.13 Centistokes and 0.55 Centistokes at 54.4 Deg. C.

3. Bernoulli`s Theorem
The French scientist established this important principles of Hydraulics on which this branch of science stands and operate : It states that total energy of a fluid flowing in a pipe at any point is the sum of potential, pressure and kinetic energy. i.e Total energy at any point remains constant, provided no energy is added to or taken from a piping system. It is also known as The law of Conservation of Energy.

3. Bernoulli`s Theorem
The Total Energy at any point above some datum is equal to the sum of :

1. Elevation head (z) in meter also called potential energy


2. Pressure Head in mlc ( P / w) where P is abs. Pressure in Kg / m2 and w is specific weight of liquid in Kg / m3. 3. Velocity Head in mlc ( V2 / 2g) It represents kinetic energy in a flowing liquid.

Thus Total Energy at any point in a fluid in meters


= Ele. Head (z) + pressure Head (P / w) + Velocity Head ( V2 / 2g)

4.Head ,Discharge & Pressure of the Pump


What is Head ?
The height of a liquid column is known as Head.
A Column of water of any liquid in a vertical pipe exerts a certain pressure on a horizontal surface at the bottom (ie.Force per unit Area). This pressure is expressed in Kg/Cm2 or mlc. H in mlc = P x 10/Specific Gravity of Liquid. where P = Pressure in Kg/Cm2. and 1 Kg/Cm2 = 10 m of Water Column.

4.Head ,Discharge & Pressure of the Pump


BASIC DEFINITION OF HEAD. 1.Suction Head (hs):

This exists when the source of liquid is below the pump datum and attracts a -ve sign.
When the source of a liquid is above the pump datum then it is called Flooded Suction and attracts a +ve sign . 2.Discharge Head (hd): This is the vertical distance in metres from pump datum to highest delivery point.

4.Head ,Discharge & Pressure of the Pump


3. Velocity Head (hv):
This represent s Kinetic energy in a mass of flowing fluid in a pipe and measured in meter. Velocity Head hv = V2/ 2g where V = Velocity of liquid in m/ Sec.

g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/sec2)

4. Friction Head (hf):


It is head required to overcome the resistance to flow in a pipe and fittings. It depends on the diameter of a pipe and its material.

4.Head ,Discharge & Pressure of the Pump


5. Pressure Head (hp): The pressure head is expressed
hp = (Pd- Ps) x 10 / Sp. Gravity of Liquid -- in meter
Where Pd & Ps are pressure in delivery and suction pipe in Kg / cm2.

6. Total Head in meter


= static head(z) + Pressure head+(Vd)2/ 2g +hf where Vd =Final or exit velocity in meters in delivery pipe.

4.Head ,Discharge & Pressure of the Pump


What is Discharge ?
It is volume of the liquid pumped out in unit time .

It is measured in m3 /hour or liter / Sec.


Thus Discharge Q =Volume per unit time = Area (A) x Velocity (V) Q= A x V Where Q= Discharge in m3/Second

A = Area of pipe in m2
V = Velocity of liquid in m / Second At site discharge is measured by Orifice, Venturi meter and Weir( V-notch or rectangular weir)

5. Types of Impellers
Basically there are three types of impellers. 1. Radial Flow :
In this type, impeller discharges fluid at right angles to the shaft axis.

Generally it is used for High HEAD & LOW Discharge Pumps. Geometry : D2/ D1= 2 or more i.e Narrow width. Where D1 - is impeller eye diameter. and D2 - is outside diameter of impeller.

5. Types of Impellers
2. Mixed Flow :
In this type, the flow direction is partly axial and partly radial. Hence as a result the flow is diagonal. Generally it is used for Medium HEAD & Large Discharge Pumps.

Geometry : D2/ D1 < 1.5 i.e wider width. Where D1 - is impeller eye diameter.

and

D2 - is outside diameter of impeller

5. Types of Impellers
3. Axial Flow :
In this type, the flow through impeller is parallel to shaft axis. It is also called propeller type pump. Generally it is used for Low HEAD & Very High Discharge Pumps.

Geometry : D2/ D1 =1

i.e No width.

Where D1 - is impeller eye diameter.

and

D2 - is outside diameter of impeller

6. The Principle of the Centrifugal Pump


The work performed by the pump is equal to the weight of liquid pumped in unit time x total Head in meter.

a) Pump out put ( WHP) = Water Horse Power. b) Pump Input ( BHP) = Break Horse Power.

c) Pump Efficiency () = WHPx100/ BHP


= pump output x100 / Pump input d) Pump output (WHP) = l/s x Head x Sp. Gr./ 102 -- in KW e) Pump input (BHP) = WHP x100 / pump efficiency -- in KW

6. The Principle of the Centrifugal Pump


Affinity Laws :
This law express the mathematical relationship between

several variables involved . In pump performance they are as under :


a) With Impeller diameter D held constant and speed changes then : Q1/Q2 = N1/N2 and H1/ H2 = (N1)2 / (N2)2

Where Q= Pump capacity in lps. H= Total Head in meters. N = Pump rpm

6. The Principle of the Centrifugal Pump


b) With speed N held constant and Impeller diameter D changes then :

Q1/Q2 = D1/D2

and H1/ H2 = (D1)2 / (D2)2

Where Q= Pump capacity in lps. H= Total Head in meters. D = Impeller diameter in mm or cm

Thank You

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