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Cell Structure

By : aRifWR

cells are the basic structural and functional units of the human body & there are many different types of cells (e.g., muscle, nerve, blood, and so on)

a tissue is a group of cells that perform a specific function and the basic types of tissues in the human body include epithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective tissues


: an organ consists of 2 or more tissues that perform a particular function (e.g., heart, liver, stomach, and so on)
: an association of organs that have a common function; the major systems in the human body include digestive, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive


Type of Cells

There are two main types or categories of cells: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Both of these types of cells have several things in common. All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane, which is made of a double layer (a bilayer) of phospholipids. Within this membrane, is the cytoplasm which is composed of the fluid and organelles of the cell. Bacteria (Kingdom Monera) are prokaryotes. They do have DNA, but it is not organized into a true nucleus with a nuclear envelope around it. Also, they lack many other internal organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. The Organisms in the other four kingdoms are eukaryotes. Their DNA isT organized into a true nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope which consists of two bilayer membranes. The nucleus of eukaryotic cells contains the genetic material which chemically directs all of the cells activities. Usually this is in the form of long strands of chromatin made of DNA and affiliated proteins.

Cell Membrane


building blocks include protein (about 60% of the membrane) and lipid, or fat (about 40% of the membrane). The primary lipid is called phospholipid, and molecules of phospholipid form a 'phospholipid bilayer' (two layers of phospholipid molecules). This bilayer forms because the two 'ends' of phospholipid molecules have very different characteristics: one end is polar (or hydrophilic) and one (the hydrocarbon tails below) is non-polar (or hydrophobic)


supporting and retaining the cytoplasm being a selective barrier The cell is separated from its environment and needs to get nutrients in and waste products out. Some molecules can cross the membrane without assistance, most cannot. Water, non-polar molecules and some small polar molecules can cross. Non-polar molecules penetrate by actually dissolving into the lipid bilayer. Most polar compounds such as amino acids, organic acids and inorganic salts are not allowed entry, but instead must be specifically transported across the membrane by proteins. transport Many of the proteins in the membrane function to help carry out selective transport. These proteins typically span the whole membrane, making contact with the outside environment and the cytoplasm. They often require the expenditure of energy to help compounds move across the membrane communication (via receptors)


Cytoplasm consists of a gelatinous solution and contains microtubules (which serve as a cell's cytoskeleton) and organelles (literally 'little organs')

Cells also contain a nucleus within which is found DNA (deoxyribonuclei c acid) in the form of chromosomes plus nucleoli (within which ribosomes are formed)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)


cell function via transcription and translation (in other words, by controlling protein synthesis in a cell)


cylindrical structures located near the nucleas play an important role in cell division

Endoplasmic Reticulum

in 2 forms: smooth and rough; the surface of rough ER is coated with ribosomes; the surface of smooth ER is not functions include: mechanical support, synthesis (especially proteins by rough ER), and transport

Golgi Complex

of a series of flattened sacs (or cisternae) functions include: synthesis (of substances likes phospholipids), packaging of materials for transport (in vesicles), and production of lysosomes


spheres that contain powerful digestive enzymes functions include destruction of damaged cells (which is why they are sometimes called 'suicide bags') & digestion of phagocytosed materials (such as bacteria)



a double-membrane: outer membrane & highly convoluted inner membrane inner membrane has folds or shelf-like structures called cristae that contain elementary particles; these particles contain enzymes important in ATP production primary function is production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)


protein may be dispersed randomly throughout the cytoplasm or attached to surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum often linked together in chains called polyribosomes or polysomes primary function is to produce proteins

of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) &

Flagella & cilia


projections from some human cells cilia are relatively short & numerous (e.g., those lining trachea) a flagellum is relatively `long and there's typically just one (e.g., sperm)


of cell membrane that serve to increase surface area of a cell (which is important, for example, for cells that line the intestine)


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