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Definition of
Respiration
• Respiration
– process that occurs in cells
– breakdown food molecules
– yield ATP.

2
Types of respiration

• Aerobic Respiration
– A metabolic process involving oxygen in
the breakdown of glucose

• Anaerobic Respiration
– A metabolic process that does not
involve oxygen in the breakdown of
glucose.
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AEROBIC RESPIRATION
There are four main stages which are locate in
difference places :

4. Glycolysis
• in the cytosol.
5. The link reaction (pyruvate oxidation)
• in the matrix of the mitochondria.
6. The Krebs cycle
• within the mitochondrial matrix.
• Electron transport systems
• in inner membranes of mitochondria..
4
Glycolisis

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6
Glycolysi
s
• Glucose is
phosphorylated,
receives a high
energy phosphate
from ATP to increase
its energy level to
become glucose-6-
phosphate, more
reactive.

• Glucose-6-
phosphate is
rearranged to
become fructose-6- 7
• Fructose-6-
phosphate is
activated by the
addition of
phosphate from ATP
to form fructose-1,6-
diphosphate.

• Fructose-1,6-
diphosphate is split
into glyceraldehyde-
3-phosphate and
dihydroxyacetone
phosphate. 8
• Glyceraldehyde-3-
phosphate is
oxidised, H atoms
are removed, NAD+
is reduced to
become NADH.

• It produced 1,3-
biphosphoglycerate.

• 1 phosphate from
1,3-biphosphate is
transferred to ADP
to form ATP.

• It produced 3- 9
phosphoglycerate
• 3-phosphoglycerate
is rearranged to
form 2-
phosphoglycerate.

• Removal of water
produces
phosphoenolpyruvat
e.

• Phosphate is
transferred to ADP
to form ATP.

• Phosphoenolpyruvat 10
The Link Reaction

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The Link Reaction
(pyruvate oxidation)
• Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
• Links glycolysis with the Krebs cycle.

During the link reaction the


5. Pyruvate combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A.
6. One molecule of carbon dioxide and hydrogen atom are
removed forming acetyl (2C).
7. Acetyl (2C) and coenzyme A will associate, forming acetyl CoA
which will then enter the Krebs cycle.

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Cellular respiration
(summary)

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0
Krebs Cycle

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Hydrogen carrier

•NAD
•Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide
•FAD
•Flavine adenine
dinucleotide
•FMN
•Flavin
mononucleotide
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Krebs Cycle
• Acetyl (2C) is transferred
from acetyl-CoA to
oxaloacetate (4C) forming
citrate (6C).

• Citrate (6C) was rearranged


to form isocitrate(6C).

• Isocitrate (6C) is oxidized


and decarboxylated to form
α-ketoglutarate (5C).

• α-ketoglutarate (5C) is Oxidized


oxidized and decarboxylated *hydrogen atom removed to from NADH or FADH2
forming succinyl CoA (4C) by
Decarboxylated
adding CoA. 17
*carbon removed to form CO2
1. CoA was released from
succinyl CoA (4C) forming
succinate (4C) and
generates one molecule
of ATP.

3. Succinate (4C) is oxidized


to form fumarate (4C).

5. Fumarate (4C) was


changed to malate (4C)
by adding one molecule
of water.

7. Finally, malate (4C) is


oxidized. This
regenerates oxaloacetate
(4C) (starting material),
completing the cycle. 18
Cellular respiration
(summary)

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0
Electron Transport
Chain

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Electron Transport Chain
1. A collection of molecules (mostly proteins) embedded in the
inner membrane of mitochondria.

3. Folding of the inner membrane into cristae increases surface area


of inner membrane (increases the number of electron transport
chains).

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Electron Transport Chain
The flow of ETC :

– The hydrogen atoms removed from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are
transferred to specific carriers of the electron transport chain on the inner
membrane of mitochondria by NADH and FADH2.

– The hydrogen are passed along carriers and then split into their protons (H+)
and electrons along the chain.

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ii. The chain consist of 3 protein complexes;
a) NADH dehydrogenase complex
b) Cytochrome b complex
c) Cytochrome oxidase complex and 2 mobile carriers;
i. Ubiquinone (Q)
ii. Cytochrome c (cyt c)

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ii. Ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) move rapidly
(carrying electrons) along the mitochondria membrane between
the 3 complexes.

iv. Electrons are passed from one carrier to another.

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– The carrier molecule gaining an electron is reduced and the
carrier molecule losing the electron is oxidised and able to
accept more electrons.

– Energy released from passing electrons down the chain are used
to pump H+ out of the matrix into intermembrane space.

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– Now, there is a greater concentration of H+ outside of the matrix.

– H+ flow back into the matrix through the channels in ATP


synthase molecules in the membrane.

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– The energy released as H+ flow back into the ATP synthase channel are then
used to phosphorilate ADP into ATP.

– The above process is called oxidative phosphorylation because


phosphorylation occurs from energy associated with the transfer of electrons
from food to oxygen.

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– The final electron aceptor at the end of the chain is O2 which combines with
H+ to form H2O

Chemiosmosis
– the use of H+ gradient to transfer energy from redox reactions to
work (phosphorylation of ATP).

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Cellular respiration
(summary)

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0
Cellular respiration
(summary)
Electron
Aspects Glicolysis Link reactions Krebs cycle transport
chain
Matrix of Matrix of Inner
Location Cytoplasm mitochondia mitochondia membrane of
mito chondrion
2 NADH 6 NADH 32 ATP
Products 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 FADH2 Or
2 pyruvate 2 ATP 34 ATP
32 ATP
Net ATP 2 ATP 2 ATP Or
34 ATP

Reactions C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + 36 or 38 ATP

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ATP Production in aerobic respiration

• When electrons flow through the ETC, a


proton gradient is generated and
– ATP is produced by chemiosmosis
– 1 NADH can generate 3 ATP
– 1 FADH2 can generate 2 ATP

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ATP Production in aerobic respiration
(active cells or in heart muscle )
• Glycolysis
– 2 ATP
– 2 NADH (will enter ETC)
• Link reaction
– 2 NADH (will enter ETC)
• Krebs cycle
– 2 ATP
– 6 NADH (will enter ETC)
– 2 FADH2 (will enter ETC)
• Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
– 2 NADH (glycolysis) = 2 X 3 ATP = 6 ATP
– 2 NADH (link reaction) = 2 X 3 ATP = 6 ATP
– 6 NADH (Krebs cycle) = 6 X 3 ATP = 18 ATP
– 2 FADH2 (Krebs cycle) = 2 X 2 ATP = 4 ATP

Number of ATP produced in ETC = 34 ATP

TOTAL ATP= 34 +2 + 2 = 38 ATP


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ATP Production in aerobic respiration
(ordinary cells)
• Glycolysis
– 2 ATP
– 2 NADH (will enter ETC)
• Link reaction
– 2 NADH (will enter ETC)
• Krebs cycle
– 2 ATP
– 6 NADH (will enter ETC)
– 2 FADH2 (will enter ETC)
• Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
– 2 NADH (glycolysis) = 2 X 2 ATP = 4 ATP
– 2 NADH (link reaction) = 2 X 3 ATP = 6 ATP
– 6 NADH (Krebs cycle) = 6 X 3 ATP = 18 ATP
– 2 FADH2 (Krebs cycle) = 2 X 2 ATP = 4 ATP

Number of ATP produced in ETC = 32 ATP

TOTAL ATP= 32 +2 + 2 = 36 ATP


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Shuttle
• In most cells, ATP yield is lower from an NADH
produced during glycolysis.

• Mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to


NADH.
– Its electrons must be carried across the membrane by
one of the several shuttle mechanism.
– Shuttle mechanisms transport metabolites between
mitochondria and cytosol.
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Shuttle
Shuttle
2. Glycerol phosphate shuttle
– Found in most cells
– 2 ATP are produced in mitochondria for each cystolic
NADH
3. Malate-Aspartate shuttle
– Found in mamalian kidney, liver, and heart
– 3 ATP are produced in mitochondria for each cystolic
NADH
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Malate-Aspartate Shuttle
(fro
(active cells)
mg
lyco
Oxaloacetate NA lysi
DH s)

NA
D+

Malate

Cytoplasm
Glutamate Aspartate α-ketoglutarate
Inner membrane

α-ketoglutarate Matrik of
Malate
Aspartate mitochondrion

AD+
N
Glutamate
A DH
Oxaloacetate N TC)
E 37
(to
Glycerol phosphate shuttle
(ordinary cells)
(from glycolysis)
NADH NAD+

Dihydroxyacetone
Glycerol phosphate Cytoplasm
phosphate

Dihdroxyacetone Glycerol phosphate Matrix of


mitochondrion
phosphate

FADH2 FAD+
(to ETC)
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ATP
(adenosine triphosphate)

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• The immediate source of energy that powers cellular
work is ATP.

• ATP is a type of nucleotide consisting


– nitrogenous base adenine
– sugar ribose
– three phosphate groups.

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• The bonds between phosphate groups can be
broken by hydrolysis.
– Hydrolysis of the end phosphate group forms
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
ATP ADP + Pi

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• Phosphate bonds of ATP are referred to high-
energy phosphate bonds, these are actually
fairly weak covalent bonds.

• They are unstable however and their hydrolysis


yields energy as the products are more stable.

• The phosphate bonds are weak because each of


the three phosphate groups has a negative
charge.
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• In the cell the energy from the hydrolysis of
ATP is coupled directly to endergonic processes
by transferring the phosphate group to another
molecule.
– This molecule is now phosphorylated.
– This molecule is now more reactive.

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Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• ATP is a renewable resource that is continually
regenerated by adding a phosphate group to
ADP.
– The energy to support renewal comes from catabolic
reactions in the cell.

• Regeneration, an endergonic process, requires


an investment of energy.

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ANAEROBIC
RESPIRATION

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ANAEROBIC
RESPIRATION
Anaerobic Respiration

• A metabolic process that does not involve


oxygen in the breakdown of glucose.

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Fermentation
– Anaerobic respiration is generation of ATP from
glucose in absence of O2

– In fermentation, glucose only goes through the steps of


Glycolysis

– 2 Pyruvates that are formed does not enter krebs cycle


or electron transport chain

– THUS, only 2 ATP are produced per molecule of


glucose 47
Importance of fermentation in
Alcohol Fermentation industry
• In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethanol
in two steps.
– First, pyruvate is converted to a two-carbon compound,
acetaldehyde by the removal of CO2.
– Second, acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol.
– Alcohol fermentation by yeast is used in brewing and
winemaking.

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Lactic acid fermentation
• During lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced
directly by NADH to form lactate (ionized form of lactic
acid).
• no release of CO2
• carried out by human muscle cells when O2 is depleted;
accumulation of lactate in muscle causes pain/fatigue

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– Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and bacteria is used to
make cheese and yogurt.
– Muscle cells switch from aerobic respiration to lactic acid
fermentation to generate ATP when O2 is scarce.
• The waste product, lactate, may cause muscle fatigue, but ultimately it is
converted back to pyruvate in the liver.

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Alternative sources of
energy

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• Glycolysis can accept a wide
range of carbohydrates.

– Polysaccharides, like starch or


glycogen, can be hydrolyzed to
glucose monomers that enter
glycolysis.

– Other hexose sugars, like


galactose and fructose, can also
be modified to undergo
glycolysis.

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• The other two major fuels,
proteins and fats, can also enter
the respiratory pathways,
including glycolysis and the
Krebs cycle, used by
carbohydrates.

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Carbohydrate, Fats, and Proteins Metabolism

Amino acid Glycerol, fatty acid


Glycogen
Gluconeogenesis (Liver)
glycogenolysis

glycogenesis
digestion insulin
Carbohydrate Blood glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose-1-phosphate
(Tissue and liver)

Glycogen
(Muscle)

Pyruvate

anaerobic aerobic

Lactate + energy CO2 + H2O + energy


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Fats (lipid) metabolism

• Fats in the liver can be modified for


respiration and can be stored in the body
cells

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Fats
• The energy of fats can also be
accessed via catabolic pathways.

• Fats must be digested to glycerol and


fatty acids.

– Glycerol can be converted to


glyceraldehyde phosphate, an
intermediate of glycolysis.

– The rich energy of fatty acids is accessed


as fatty acids are split into two-carbon
fragments via beta oxidation.

– These molecules enter the Krebs cycle as


acetyl CoA. 57
Carbohydrate, Fats, and Proteins Metabolism

Amino acid Glycerol, fatty acid


Glycogen
Gluconeogenesis (Liver)
glycogenolysis

glycogenesis
digestion insulin
Carbohydrate Blood glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose-1-phosphate
(Tissue and liver)

Glycogen
(Muscle)

Pyruvate

anaerobic aerobic

Lactate + energy CO2 + H2O + energy


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Fats

• In fact, a gram of fat will


generate twice as much ATP as
a gram of carbohydrate via
aerobic respiration.

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Protein Metabolism
• Protein being recycled are first broken down into amino
acids.
• Hepatocytes (liver cells) convert amino acids to fatty
acid, ketone bodies, glucose or oxidize them to carbon
dioxide and water
• There are two ways of protein metabolism
– Deamination
• a conversion consists of removing the amino group from the amino
acids and converting it to ammonia
– Transamination
• the transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to pyruvic acid or to
an acid in the Krebs cycle-can synthesized nonessential amino acids
• Ornithine Cycle shows the formation of urea
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Metabolism of excess amino acid
Excess amino acid
deamination

Keto acid + NH3 Production of organic base

CO2
Krebs Glucose Ornithine Nucleotide synthesis
cycle cycle

Glycogen Fats
H2O + CO2 urea
Nucleic acid synthesis

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Ornithine cycle (urea cycle)
H2O
fumarate arginine

urea

arginosuccinate ornithine

AMP + PPi Carbamoyl phosphate


2 ADP + Pi

ATP 2 ATP
Pi
NH3 citruline NH3 + CO2 + H2O
aspartate

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Deamination of amino acid
• Carbohydrates, fats,
and proteins can all
be catabolized
through the same
pathways.

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The needs for energy and the role
of respiration in living organism

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Metabolic reaction (metabolism)
• Biochemical reactions that occur in living
organisms

• Metabolic reaction

1. Anabolic reaction (anabolism)


• Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complicated
molecules from simpler compounds

2. Catabolic reaction (catabolism)


• Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down
complex molecules to simpler compounds.
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The importance of ATP
ATP provides the energy for :
• Substrate level phosphorylation
• Chemiosmosis
• Muscle contraction
• Urea synthesis
• Protein synthesis
• Active transport systems
• Calvin cycle (dark stage of photosynthesis)
• Nitrogen fixation
– involves the ATP-driven reduction of molecular nitrogen

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• A cell does three main kinds of work:
– Mechanical work
• beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement of
chromosomes
– Transport work
• pumping substances across membranes against the direction of
spontaneous movement
– Chemical work
• driving endergonic reactions such as the synthesis of polymers
from monomers.

• In most cases, the immediate source of energy that


powers cellular work is ATP. 67
That’s all for this topic

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QUESTIONS

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Final exam 2005/2006
Question number : 6

• Describe how one molecule of glucose is able to


produce 36 ATP via aerobic respiration.
[14 marks]
• Explain the production of lactic acid during
anaerobic respiration.
[6 marks]

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Final exam 2004/2005
Question number : 6

c) Compare between aerobic and anaerobic


respirations.
[8 marks]

e) Describe the stages in the production of NAD


and its role in cellular respiration.
[12 marks]
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Final exam (January intake) 1999/2000

Question number : 3

c) Describe the structure of ATP and its functions


in cellular metabolism.
[6 marks]

e) Aerobic respiration produced more ATP


compared to anaerobic respiration. Explain this
statement. [14 marks]
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Final exam (Jun intake) 1999/2000

Question number : 4

Glucose undergo three phase of oxidation


during cellular respiration
v. Glycolysis
vi. Krebs cycle
vii. Oxidative phosphorylation
Complete the table below with suitable answer.
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Aspect Glycolysis Krebs cycle Oxidative
phosphorylation
1. Location Cytoplasm (i) (ii)

1. Products Two main Two main Two main


products products products
(iii) (v) ATP
(iv) (vi) Water

1. Net amount
of ATP (vii) 2 (viii)

1. Equation for (ix)


cellular (ix)
respiration

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