Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

Mark M.

Davis Janelle Heineke

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
INTEGRATING MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES
FIFTH EDITION

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama


Copyright 2005, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

SUPPLEMENT

S8

Job Design and Work Performance Measurement

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

SUPPLEMENT OBJECTIVES
Define the concept of employee empowerment and show how it affects management and the organization.

Introduce behavioral and physical factors that should be considered when designing jobs.
Introduce the more common types of work methods that are practiced in the workplace. Understand the fundamental issues involved in developing work measurements.

Identify the basic elements of a time study.


Determine how to design a work sampling study and apply it to an actual operation.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S83

The New Workplace


Worker empowerment that provides employees with authority to make decisions pertaining to the organization.
Those workers who do the work know best how to achieve efficiency and quality in their work.

Work performance standards are necessary in determining labor costs, setting manpower levels, and in identifying workers whose contributions are to be recognized and properly rewarded.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S84

Job Design
Issues in Job Design
Quality as part of the workers job. Cross-training workers for multi-skilled jobs. Employee involvement and team approaches to designing and organizing work. Informating ordinary workers through telecommunications network and computers. Any time, any place production. Automation of heavy manual work. Organizational commitment to providing. meaningful and rewarding jobs for employees.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S85

Job Design (contd)


Job Design
Tasks and sequences that have to be accomplished and are within an individuals job assignment. Micromotion: the smallest work activity. Element: two or more micromotions. Task: two or more elements that comprise a complete activity. Job: A set of all the tasks that must be performed by a worker.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S86

Factors in Job Design

Exhibit S8.1
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S87

Behavioral Considerations in Job Design


Degree of Labor Specialization
Dividing tasks into small increments of work, resulting in efficient operations due to highly repetitive tasks. Job Enlargement (Horizontal Enlargement) Redesigning a job, usually by increasing the number of tasks, to make it more interesting. Job Enrichment Broadening a job description to include both more tasks and greater worker involvement in the planning and design of the work to be done.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S88

Advantages of Specialization of Labor

Exhibit S8.2
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S89

Disadvantages of Specialization of Labor

Exhibit S8.2 (contd)


Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S810

Physical Considerations in Job Design


Work Task Continuum
Manual tasks Put stress on large muscle groups, causing fatigue. Motor tasks Involve speed and precision in physical movements. Mental tasks Involve rapid decision making base on certain types of stimuli.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S811

Work Task Continuum (Human Work)

Exhibit S8.3
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S812

Work Methods
Studying the production system to:
Identify non-valued-added time delays, transport distances, process and processing time requirements Simplify the entire operation by eliminating any step that does not add value to the product.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S813

Work Methods and Design Aids

Exhibit S8.4
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S814

Flow Diagram of an Office Procedure Present Method*

*Requisition is written by supervisor, typed by secretary, approved by superintendent, and approved by purchasing agent; then a purchase order is prepared by a stenographer.
Source: Ralph M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study, 8th ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980), pp. 7679. Copyright John Wiley & Sons. This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Exhibit S8.5
McGraw-Hill/Irwin S815

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Process Chart of an Office Procedure Present Method*

*Requisition is written by supervisor, typed by secretary, approved by superintendent, and approved by purchasing agent; then a purchase order is prepared by a stenographer.

Source: Ralph M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study, 8th ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980), pp. 7679. Copyright John Wiley & Sons. This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Exhibit S8.5 (contd)


Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S816

Common Notation in Process Charting

Exhibit S8.6
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S817

Gilbreths Principles of Motion Economy


Using the human body the way it works best:
1. The work should be arranged to provide a natural rhythm that can become automatic. 2. The symmetrical nature of the body should be considered: a. The motions of arms should be simultaneous, beginning and completing their motions at the same time. b. Motions of the arms should be opposite and symmetrical.

Source: Frank C. Barnes, Principles of Motion Economy: Revisited, Reviewed, and Restored, Proceedings of the Southern Management Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 1983, p. 298. Reprinted by permission.

Exhibit S8.7
McGraw-Hill/Irwin S818

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Gilbreths Principles of Motion Economy (contd)


Using the human body the way it works best:
3. The human body is an ultimate machine and its full capabilities should be employed: a. Neither hand should ever be idle. b. Work should be distributed to other parts of the body in line with their ability. c. The safe design limits of the body should be observed. d. The human should be employed at its highest use.
Source: Frank C. Barnes, Principles of Motion Economy: Revisited, Reviewed, and Restored, Proceedings of the Southern Management Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 1983, p. 298. Reprinted by permission.

Exhibit S8.7 (contd)


McGraw-Hill/Irwin S819

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Gilbreths Principles (contd)


Arranging the workplace to assist performance:
There should be a definite place for all tools and materials. Tools, materials, and controls should be located close to the point of use. Tools, materials, and controls should be located to permit the best sequence and path of motions.

Using mechanical devices to reduce human effort:


Vises and clamps can hold the work precisely where needed. Guides can assist in positioning the work without close operator attention. Controls and foot-operated devices can relieve the hands of work. Mechanical devices can multiply human abilities. Mechanical systems should be fitted to human use.
Source: Frank C. Barnes, Principles of Motion Economy: Revisited, Reviewed, and Restored, Proceedings of the Southern Management Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 1983, p. 298. Reprinted by permission.

Exhibit S8.7 (contd)


McGraw-Hill/Irwin S820

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

WorkerMachine Chart for a Gourmet Coffee Store

Exhibit S8.8
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S821

Worker-Machine Chart for a Gourmet Coffee Store

The customer, the clerk, and the coffee grinder (machine) are involved in this operation. It required 1 minute and 10 seconds for the customer to purchase a pound of coffee in this particular store. During this time the customer spent 22 seconds, or 31 percent of the time, giving the clerk his order, receiving the ground coffee, and paying the clerk for it. He was idle during the remaining 69 percent of the time. The clerk worked 49 seconds, or 70 percent of the time, and was idle 21 seconds, or 30 percent of the time. The coffee grinder was in operation 21 seconds, or 30 percent of the time, and was idle 70 percent of the time.
Exhibit S8.8 (contd)
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S822

Activity Chart of Emergency Tracheotomy

Source: Data taken from Harold E. Smalley and John Freeman, Hospital Industrial Engineering (New York: Reinhold, 1966), p. 409.

Exhibit S8.9
McGraw-Hill/Irwin S823

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Work Measurement
Work Measurement
The methodology used for establishing time standards.

Basic Industrial Engineering Methods


Time study Elemental standard time data Predetermined motion-time data Work sampling

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S824

Types of Work Measurement Applied to Different Tasks

Exhibit S8.10
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S825

Time Study
Time Study
The determination, with the use of a stopwatch, of how long it takes to complete a task or set of tasks. Normal time = Observed performance time per unit x Performance rating Piece rate is the rate paid for work completed. Break down tasks by: Conducting an overall methods analysis Defining each work element to be timed. Separating human work from machine work. Defining operator and machine delays separately.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S826

Elemental Standard-Time Data


Time Standard
The established time for completing a job, used in determining labor costs for making a product. Steps Breakdown the new job into its elements Match elements to the time for similar job-specific elements in the elemental table. Adjust elements for special characteristics of the job.

Add element times together and add delay and fatigue allowances.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S827

Predetermined Motion-Time Data


Predetermined Motion-Time Tables
Create a time standard for a job or task based on standard times for basic motions (therbligs). Can be applied to a wide-variety of tasks.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S828

Work Sampling
Work Sampling
A statistical technique for estimating how workers allocate their time among various activities throughout a workday. Issues involved: What level of statistical confidence is desired in the results? How many observations are necessary? When should the observations be made?

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S829

Work Sampling (contd)


Determining the Required Number of Samples:

Z 2 p(1 p) E2

N = Number of observations to be made


Z = Number of standard deviations associated with a given confidence level p = Estimated proportion of time that the activity being measured occurs E = Absolute error that is desired
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S830

Work Sampling (contd)


Steps in Conducting a Work Sampling Study:
Identify the activities for study. Estimate the proportion of time of the activity of interest to the total time. State the desired accuracy in the study results. Determine the specific time when each observation is to be made. If using an estimated time, recompute the required samples size at intervals during the study and adjust the number of observations.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin S831

Assignment of Numbers to Corresponding Minutes

Exhibit S8.11
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S832

Determination of Observation Times

Exhibit S8.12
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S833

Observation Schedule

Exhibit S8.13
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin S834