Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

Factors that Affect Communication

Lecture 2

Problems/Barriers of communication


Communication is an act or instance of transmitting or the information communicated through a verbal or written message . By definition, this doesn't sound like a difficult act to perform.

After all, it's basically just an exchange of words.

However, there are certain barriers that can prevent effective communication from taking place, which can lead to a variety of problems both personally and professionally if not broken down and resolved.

Broadly problems occur due to..

Conventions of meaning

Perceptions of reality
Values, attitudes and opinion

Conventions of Meaning

Symbols are sings for things that exist

Connections between signs and their referents are unique to each individual
Denotations, connotations and euphemism

Perception of reality

Human being sensory perceptions are limited and each persons mental filter is unique We make various abstractions, inferences and evaluations of the world around us

Values , Attitudes and Opinions

Favourable and unfavorable information

Closed minds
Senders Credibility Personal mood of the sender / receiver

Nonverbal Communication

Non verbal messages often contradict the verbal Appearance Body language

Silence, time and space

Communication problems

from senders side

Lack of planning Vagueness about the purpose of communication Objectives to be achieved Choice of wrong language, resulting in badly encoded message Unshared & unclarified assumptions Different perception of reality Wrong choice of the channel

Barriers - Receiver

Poor listener Inattention

Lack of interest Premature evaluation Semantic Difficulties Bias /Lack of trust

Different perception of reality

Attitudinal clash with sender Not in a fit physical state

Barriers Receiver cont.

Selective Perception Unwillingness to Change Lack of Interest in the Topic/Subject Prejudice & Belief System

Rebuttal Instincts
Personal Value System Here-and-Now internal & external factors

Common barrier

both sender & receiver

Absence of a common frame of reference


smooth interpretation of thoughts, feelings and attitudes from the sender to the receiver in a specific social situation

well-defined social context in which communication takes place enables both the sender & receiver to perceive the content of communication in a similar way with similar implications and meaning.

Common barrier

both sender & receiver

Physical noise & other faults in surroundings & instruments of transmission of message relate mainly to the channel They may not distort the overall meaning of the total message to be communicated
Most listed barriers are easy to understand, but some still need explanation .

Barriers Wrong & unclarified assumptions


All communications are made under some assumptions, which are never communicated They may turn out wrong & cause communication failure

E.g. we often assume that others


the situation as we do feel about the situation as we do the message as we understand it about the matter as we do

Should Think


Conditions for successful communication


Communication is to share information with others in an intelligible, participative form through the medium of words / body gestures / other symbolic signs

Rule of Five Keith Davis

Role of receiver as important as that of sender

5 Receiver steps
Receive Understand Accept Use


Communication incomplete & unsuccessful if not observed

Rule of Five Keith Davis

Communication is successful when

The message is properly understood

The purpose of the sender is fulfilled

The sender & receiver of the message remain linked through feedback

Barriers in Communication

(that have to do with the COMMUNICATOR)

Unwillingness to say things differently Unwillingness to relate to others differently Unwillingness to learn new approaches

Lack of Self-Confidence
Lack of Enthusiasm Voice quality Prejudice

Barriers in Communication
(that have to do with the COMMUNICATOR)

Disagreement between verbal and nonverbal messages Negative Self Image Lack of Feedback

Lack of Motivation and Training

Language and Vocabulary Level Lack of Self Awareness

External Barriers in Communication



The venue The effect of noise

Temperature in the room


Other People Status, Education, competition Time

5 Basic reasons we Do Not Listen

Listening is Hard Work

Superiority Complex
Overconfidence Disinterested Competition The Rush for Action

Lack of Training

Improving Listening Skills

By not being Preoccupied Being Open Minded & Non Defensive Minimizing Interruptions Effective Listening is: Hearing, interpreting when necessary, understanding the message and relating to it. By Asking Questions

List of Factors that affect communication


Lack of clarity
Prejudice Personal perceptions/attitudes Body orientation, posture, distance, appearance, facial expression, eye contact, gestures etc. Physical discomfort

Language Lack of Listening Skills Physical Distractions Medium of communication

Distance Past experience (attitudes, beliefs, values) Assumptions about how people behave Expectations

Knowledge Knowledge about someone Personal moods Difference in age and sex Misinterpretation Quality of the messages

Personal pre-occupation