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CHAPTER TWELVE

Subcultures and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objectives
1. To Understand What Subculture Is, and Its Relationship to Culture. 2. To Understand Nationality as a Subcultural Influence on Consumer Behavior. 3. To Understand Religious Affiliation as a Subcultural Influence on Consumer Behavior. 4. To Understand Geographic and Regional Residences as Subcultural Influences on Consumer Behavior.

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Learning Objectives (continued)


5. To Understand Racial Identity as a Subcultural Influence on Consumer Behavior. 6. To Understand Age as a Subcultural Influence on Consumer Behavior. 7. To Understand Gender as a Subcultural Influence on Consumer Behavior. 8. To Understand How Multiple Subcultural Memberships Jointly Influence Consumer Behavior.

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Why Is State Farm Running Magazine Ads in Spanish? At Whom Are These Ads Directed?

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To Build their Market by Reaching the Hispanic American Consumer

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Subculture

A distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society.

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Discussion Questions
Would you categorize yourself as belonging to any subcultures? How does it affect your consumer purchases?

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Relationship Between Culture and Subculture - Figure 12.2

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Examples of Major Subcultural Categories Table 12.1


CATEGORIES Nationality EXAMPLES Greek, Italian, Russian

Religion Geographic region Race


Age

Catholic, Hindu, Mormon Eastern, Southern, Southwestern African American, Asian, Caucasian
Teenagers, Xers, elderly

Gender Occupation
Social class

Female, male Bus driver, cook, scientist


Lower, middle, upper
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Nationality Subculture - Hispanic


Stronger preference for well-established brands Prefer to shop at smaller stores Some are shifting food shopping to nonethnic American-style supermarkets Youths are more fashion conscious than non-Hispanic peers

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Why Is Days Inn Running Ads in Spanish, and Who Are the Consumers Targeted by Such Ads?

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Because Hispanic Americans who Speak Spanish as a First Language Tend to Prefer Spanish-Language Advertising

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Nationality Subculture Hispanic U.S. Hispanic Population by Place of Origin Figure 12.3

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Segmenting the Hispanic Market Figure 12.5

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Religious Subcultures
200+ organized religious groups in the U.S. Primary organized faiths include:
Protestant denominations Roman Catholicism Islam Judaism

Consumer behavior symbolically and ritualistically associated with the celebration of religious holidays.
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Regional Subcultures
Many regional differences exist in consumption behavior
Westerners have a mug of black coffee Easterners have a cup of coffee with milk and sugar White bread is preferred in the South and Midwest Rye and whole wheat are preferred on the East and West coasts

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Major Racial Subcultures African American


The African American Consumer
13 percent of the U.S. population Purchasing power estimated at $845 billion

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What Are the Strategic Goals of This Ad?

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This Ad is Placed in Black Media which is Very Important to Many African Americans.

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Major Racial Subcultures African American


Prefer leading brands over private-label brands Brand loyal Higher than average trips to grocery store and higher spending Spend more then other segments on telephone services

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Major Racial Subcultures Asian American


Fastest growing racial segment Diverse group including 6 major ethnicities:
Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese

95% live in metropolitan areas and business ownership is high

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Region of Residence for Selected Subcultural Groups Figure 12.7

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Major Racial Subcultures Asian American


Increasing buying power Diverse so few trends Many prefer ads in English as language is self reported as well spoken Figure 12.8

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Major Age Subcultures

Generation Y

Generation X

Baby Boomers

Seniors

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Generation Y
According to sources, born 1977-1994 OR 1982-2000 Three groups
Gen Y Adults 19-28 Gen Y Teens 13-18 Gen Y Tweens 8-12

Twixters 21-29 and live with parents

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Discussion Questions
Is it ethical for marketers of high-priced goods, an iPod for example, to target tweens? How might they market responsibly?

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Generation X
Born between 1965 and 1979 Also referred to as Xers, busters, or slackers Do not like labels, are cynical, and do not want to be marketed to

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Baby Boomers
Born between 1946 1964 More than 40 percent of the adult population Motivated consumers Not anxious to retire and handle it as:
Opportunity for a new start A continuation of preretirement life Unwelcome disruption Transition to old age

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Older Consumers
Roughly 65 years and older Growing segment due to better medical care, declining birthrate and the aging of the large baby boomer segment Three segments by age
The Young-Old (65-74) The Old (75-84) The Old-Old (85 and older)
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Older Consumers
Segmentation can also be done on motivations and quality-of-life orientation Cyberseniors

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How Seniors Use the Internet Figure 12.9

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Discussion Questions
How might the three senior segments differ in their consumption of food products? How might a marketer of a food product market differently to the three subgroups?

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Issues in Understanding Gender as a Subculture


Sex Roles and Consumer Behavior
Masculine vs. Feminine Traits

Consumer Products and Sex Roles Women as depicted in Media

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Working Women
Segments of ALL women
Stay-at-home Plan-to-work Just-a-job working Career-oriented working

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Consumer Electronics Products Women Are Most Interested in Buying - Figure 12.10

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Subcultural Interaction

Marketers should strive to understand how multiple subcultural memberships jointly influence consumers behavior

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