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ULTRA HIGH RISE BUILDINGS (TUBE STRUCTURES)

By J.C.WASON

ULTRA HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

102 STOREYED EMPIRE STATE BLDG, NEW YORK, USA.

What is a Tube Structure ?


A Tube structure is a 3 dimensional stiff Tube like structure which acts like a vertical cantilever, fixed to base, and is acted upon vertical forces due to Dead loads and live loads and Horizontal Forces due to Earthquake and Wind.

HOR. LOADS DUE TO WIND /EQ

H (WIND/EQ) W=DL+LL W

TUBE SYSTEMS A Tube structure is a 3 D space Tube like stiff vertical cantilever system fixed at base and subjected to vertical loads due to D.L & L.L & Horizontal loads due to EQ & wind

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TUBE STRUCTURES :
Def: A Three dimensional space structure composed of Stiff rigid frames, Braced frames, Shear walls or their combinations joined together to form a Tube like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from foundations.

Tube structures :
Entire Tube structure participates in overturning resistance.

Tube structures : Location of resisting elements


Resisting elements in a Tube structures may be located Around internally located service cores. Around exterior perimeter. Faade of a building. Tube Structures are generally extended from Foundations to Full height of the building.

Types of Tube Structures :


Following Types of Tube Structures are normally adopted : 1. Framed Tubes. 2. Trussed (or Braced) Tubes. 3. Multiple Tube Systems : (i). Tube in Tube (ii). Bundled Tube.

1. Framed Tubes :
A Framed Tube system has closely spaced columns and deep spandrel beams, such that the entire structure acts like a perforated cantilevered vertical Tube resisting lateral loads due to wind and EQ. Examples : 40 storeyed De Witt Apartment Building, USA.

STRESS IN COLUMN DUE TO TRUE CANTILEVER


AXIAL STRESS IN COLUMN DUE TO WIND ONLY

ACTUAL STRESS DUE TO SHEAR LAG

WIND FORCE

ACTUAL STRESS DUE TO SHEAR LAG


THE CANTILEVER STRESS

FRAMED TUBE : Consists of closely spaced stiffened columns.

FRAMED TUBE :

40 storeyed De Witt Apartment Bldg USA. Col spacing = 1.7 m c/c Stiffened by stiff beams

40 STOREYED DE WITT BLDG,USA FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM.

40 STOREYED DE WITT BLDG, USA : FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN

2. Trussed (or Braced) Tubes :


Similar to Framed Tube But The exterior columns are braced with diagonals to provide additional stiffness which makes all the columns to act as a rigid Tube. An efficient system in terms of inherent lateral strength and rigidity. Very efficient structural system in the range of 100 storeyes. Example : 100 storeyed John Honcock Tower in Chicago ( 1968 ).

JOHN HAN COCK TOWER, CHICAGO, USA. : 100 STOREYED BRACED FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM BLDG.

100 STOREYED JOHN HANCOCK TOWER BLDG, CHICAGO, USA BRACED FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM

3. Multiple Tube Systems :


(i). Tube in Tube Systems : Has external framing Tube acting together with Interior Shear Core to increase stiffness. Example : One shell plaza Building in Houston, USA, a 52 storeyed building with high strength light weight concrete. The building has closely spaced columns along the external periphery with central shear core enclosing central service core.

COLUMNS AT CLOSE INTERNALS TO PERFORM AS EXTERNAL TUBE

DEEP STIFF BEAMS TO STIFFEN CLOSELY SPACED COLUMNS

SHEAR WALLS IN SERVICE CORE TO PERFORM AS INTERNAL TUBE

TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM HAS AN EXTERNAL TUBE AND AN INTERNAL TUBE TO PROVIDE STIFFNESS-SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT

CORE SHEAR WALL TUBE

EXTERIOR FRAMED TUBE

SCEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM

CLOSELY SPACED COLUMNS STIFF FRAMING BEAMS

SHEAR WALLS FORMING INNER TUBE

PLAN SHOWING SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM

39 DEEP SPANDRAL BEAMS BY 24 WIDE TO 30TK FLOOR & 18 WIDE AVG. COLUMN 33X26 TO ROOF

24 COMPOSITE TRUSS 2 METAL DECK 22 CONCRETE

SHEAR WALLS

STEEL FLOORS

LINK BEAM 32X39 DEEP BY 20 WIDE


PERIMETER SHEAR WALL AVG. THICKNESS 18

FRAMED TUBE

2:4 COMPOSITE TRUSS 2. METAL DECK 2:2 CONCRETE

FIRST CANADIAN CENTRE, CALGARY, CANADA 64

FIRST CANADIAN CENTRE, CALGARY, CANADA 64 STOREYED TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM : FRONT VIEW

Multiple Tube Systems (contd.) :


(ii). Bundled Tube Systems : Consist of a number of vertical Tublar elements bundled (fitted) together and sharing common side frames. Bundling increases lateral stiffness and stability of the building. Tubes may be terminated along height at various levels of the buildings. Example : 110 storeyed SEARS TOWER building at Chicago, USA (1974).

110 STOREYED SEARS TOWERS BUILDING, CHICAGO, USA. BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM.

FRONT VIEW

110 STOREYED SEARS TOWERS BLDG, CHICAGO, USA . BUNDLED TUBE FRAMING SYSTEM.

ZONE 3

91 TO 110 ZONE 2 67 TO 90

75

ZONE 1

FLOORS 1 TO 50 MULTIPLE OR BUNDLED TUBE

51 TO 66

110STOREYED SEARS TOWERS BLDG., CHICAGO, USA. BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM

110

90

66 50

PLAN SHAPES

SEARS TOWER, CHICAGO, USA BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM

110 STOREYED SEARS TOWERS BLDG, CHICAGO, USA.

ZONE 3

ZONE 3

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STEEL COL. (EXT.)

STEEL DECK

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB

STEEL COL. (INT)

STEEL TRUSS 22.9 M SPAN AT 1.6 M C/C

FALSE CEILING

22900mm (75-0)

110 STOREYED SEARS TOWERS, CHICAGO, USA FLOOR SYSTEM : STEEL DECK ROOF- CONC. COMPOSITE FLOOR SYSTEM (SCHEMATIC)

1040 mm

TUBE SYSTEMS SOME LIVE EXAMPLES :


1. 40 storeyed De Witt Apartment Bldg. USA : A Framed Tube Bldg. 2. John Hancock Tower : 100 storeyed Framed Tube System. 3. World Trade Centre (1972), (Since collapsed in a terrorists attack) : 110 storeyed, 419 m high Framed Tube building. 4. Sears Towers(1974) : 110 storeyed, 443 m high building with Bundled Tube system.

Sears Towers, Chicago, USA (1974) :


Architects : Skidmore Owings & Merill Struct. Engrs : F.R. KHAN No of storeyes : 110 + 3 Basements Ht (from street to roof) : 443 m Bldg. Use : Office Frame Material : Structural Steel Typical Floor Live Load : 2.5 KN/m2 Basic Wind Speed : 34 m/sec.; 100 yrs return period. Max. lateral deflection = H/550

Sears Towers, Chicago (contd.) :


Structural System : Bundled Framed Tube Foundation Type : 18 m deep cassions Typical Floor : storey ht. = 3.92 m Steel Trusses span = 22.9 m (75 feet). Steel Trusses depth = 1016 mm (40) Steel Trusses spacing : 4.6 m (15) Floor slab : 63 mm thick RCC slab with light wt conc . On 76 mm steel trough, (composite construction).

Sears Towers, Chicago (contd.) :


Columns : Size at ground floor : 990 X 610 mm built up Steel columns. Spacing : 4.6 m Material : Steel grade 350 Total Office Space : 362,000 m2 in 109 storeyes. Max. column free space = 22.9m X 22.9m The structure acts as a Vertical Cantilever

Total qty of structural steel used = 69000 Tonnes.

Bundled Tube System of Sears Towers :


Nine square Tubes, each 22.9x22.9 m in plan, are bundled together to create the larger overall Tube. Each Tube consists of cols. At 4.6m centers connected by stiff beams. 22.9 m square floor areas of each Tube is framed by one way, 1020 mm deep flat steel trusses spanning 22.9 m at 4.6 m centers. Spaces between diagonal truss members is utilised for passage of A/C ducts and other services.

World Trade Centre, New York, USA(1972) : (Demolished during terrorist attack)
No. of storeyes : 110 Ht from street to roof : 411.5m Bldg use : Office, commercial Frame material : Steel Structural system : Framed Tube with core columns for lifts

WORLD TRADE CENTRE, NEW YORK, USA


110 STOREYED FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM

CORE COLUMNS

110 STOREYED WORLD TRADE CENTRE, NEW YORK, USA FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM,

CONCRETE

TELEPHONE AND POWER OUTLETS

FLOOR TILES

CORRUGATED STEEL SHHETS TRUSS COVERING UTILITY DUCTS: TELEPHONE AND POWER HEATING, VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING DUCT

WORLD TRADE SYSTEM FLOOR SYSTEM; FLAT STEEL ROOF TRUSSES WITH RCC SLAB FLOORS WITH CORROGATED SHEET COVERING

WORLD TRADE CENTRE (contd).


Truss Span : 10.63 to 18.3 m Truss spacing : 1.01 m Truss depth : 815 mm Column spacing : 1.01 m c/c Total Floor Area : 418,000 sqm Total Qty of steel used : 2,00,000 Tonnes Total Qty of conc. Used : 3,54,000 cum Total occupancy : 50,000 Total Cost : 650 million dollars

World Trade Centre, New York, USA (contd). External Tube and Core :

Structural system consists of 240 external wall cols, Spaced at 1.01 m c/c. tied by 1.34 m deep beams at each floor to form Virendeel Truss. Structure forms a 63.5 m square Tube, with internal columns only at central lift core.

World Trade Centre (Contd).

Each floor had about one Acre of column free space.

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World Trade Centre, New York, USA (contd).


Floor System : consists of 100 mm thick RCC slab over steel deck resting on flat steel trusses, 815 mm deep, and spanning from 10.63m to 18.3m, and spaced at 1.01 m centres.

Cavity between the trusses is used to accommodate the A/C ducts and other service pipes.
DAMPERS : 10000 dampers installed to dampen movements due to wind.

CONCRETE

TELEPHONE AND POWER OUTLETS

FLOOR TILES

CORRUGATED STEEL SHHETS TRUSS COVERING UTILITY DUCTS: TELEPHONE AND POWER HEATING, VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING DUCT

WORLD TRADE SYSTEM FLOOR SYSTEM; FLAT STEEL ROOF TRUSSES WITH RCC SLAB FLOORS WITH CORROGATED SHEET COVERING

WORLD TRADE CENTRE BLDG IN FIRE AFTER TERRORIST ATTACK

WORLD TRADE CENTRE IN FIRE AFTER TERRORIST ATTACK A CLOSER VIEW

WORLD TRADE CENTRE IN FIRE AFTER TERRORIST ATTACK A CLOSER VIEW.

SOME TALL BLDGS OF FUTURE :


1. MIGLIN BEITLER TOWER, CHICAGO, USA : 141 storeyes, 610 m Height 2. SHIMZU SUPER HIGHRISE BUILDING, TOKYO, : 121 storeyes, 550 m Height. 3. The TOKYO MILLENIUM TOWER : 840 m Height 4. BIONIC TOWER, HONG KONG : 1128m Height,

ULTRA HIGH RISE BUILDINGS IT IS NOT THE END

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