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PETE 661

Drilling Engineering

Lesson 9 Well Control Concepts


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Lesson 9 - Well Control Concepts


The Anatomy of a KICK Kicks - Definition Kick Detection

Kick Control
(a) (b) * * Dynamic Kick Control Other Kick Control Methods Drillers Method Engineers Method
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Read:
Applied Drilling Engineering, Ch.6

HW # 6
Kick Control due Monday, Oct. 13, 2003
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Causes of Kicks

Causes of Kicks

Causes of Kicks

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What?
What is a kick?
An unscheduled entry of formation fluid(s) into the wellbore

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Why?
Why does a kick occur?
The pressure inside the wellbore is lower than the formation pore pressure (in a permeable formation). pw < pf
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How?
How can this occur?
Mud density is too low

( pW pF )

Fluid level is too low - trips or lost circ.


Swabbing on trips Circulation stopped - ECD too low
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What ?

What happens if a kick is not controlled?

BLOWOUT !!!
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Typical Kick Sequence


1. Kick indication 2. Kick detection - (confirmation) 3. Kick containment - (stop kick influx) 4. Removal of kick from wellbore 5. Replace old mud with kill mud (heavier)

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Kick Detection and Control

Kick Detection

Kick Control

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1. Circulate Kick out of hole

Keep the BHP constant throughout

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2. Circulate Old Mud out of hole

Keep the BHP constant throughout

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Kick Detection
Some of the preliminary events that may be associated with a well-control problem, not necessarily in the order of occurrence, are: 1. Pit gain; 2. Increase in flow of mud from the well 3. Drilling break (sudden increase in drilling rate)
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Kick Detection
4. Decrease in circulating pressure; 5. Shows of gas, oil, or salt water 6. Well flows after mud pump has been shut down 7. Increase in hook load 8. Incorrect fill-up on trips
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Dynamic Kick Control


[Kill well on the fly] For use in controlling shallow gas kicks No competent casing seat No surface casing - only conductor Use diverter (not BOPs) Do not shut well in!

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Dynamic Kick Control


1. Keep pumping. Increase rate! (higher ECD) 2. Increase mud density

0.3 #/gal per circulation


3. Check for flow after each complete circulation 4. If still flowing, repeat 2-4.
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Conventional Kick Control


{Surface Casing and BOP Stack are in place}

Shut in well for pressure readings.


(a) Remove kick fluid from wellbore; (b) Replace old mud with kill weight mud Use choke to keep BHP constant.
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Conventional Kick Control


1. DRILLERS METHOD ** TWO complete circulations ** Circulate kick out of hole using old mud Circulate old mud out of hole using kill weight mud
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Conventional Kick Control


2. WAIT AND WEIGHT METHOD (Engineers Method) ** ONE complete circulation **

Circulate kick out of hole using kill weight mud


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Drillers Method - Constant Geometry


Information required:
Well Data: Depth = 10,000 ft. Hole size = 12.415 in. (constant) Drill Pipe = 4 1/2 O.D., 16.60 #/ft Surface Csg.: 4,000 ft. of 13 3/8 O.D. 68 #/ft (12.415 in I.D.)
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Drillers Method - Constant Geometry


Additional Information required:
Kick Data: Original mud weight Shut-in annulus press. Shut-in drill pipe press. Kick size

= 10.0 #/gal = 600 psi = 500 psi = 30 bbl (pit gain)

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Constant Annular Geometry.


Initial conditions: Kick has just entered the wellbore Pressures have stabilized
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Successful Well Control


1. At no time during the process of removing the kick fluid from the wellbore will the pressure exceed the pressure capability of
the formation

the casing the wellhead equipment


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Successful Well Control


2. When the process is complete the wellbore is completely filled with a fluid of sufficient density (kill mud) to control the formation pressure. Under these conditions the well will not flow when the BOPs are opened. 3. Keep the BHP constant throughout.
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Calculations
From the initial shut-in data we can calculate:
Bottom hole pressure

Casing seat pressure Height of kick Density of kick fluid


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Calculate New Bottom Hole Pressure


PB = SIDPP + Hydrostatic Pressure in DP = 500 + 0.052 * 10.0 * 10,000 = 500 + 5,200

PB = 5,700 psig
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Calculate Pressure at Casing Seat


P4,000 = P0 + DPHYDR. ANN. 0-4,000

= SICP + 0.052 * 10 * 4,000


= 600 + 2,080

P4,000 = 2,680 psig

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Calculate EMW at Casing Seat


This corresponds to a pressure gradient of

2,680 psi 0.670 psi/ft 4,000 ft


Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW) =

0.670 psi / ft 12.88 lb/gal 0.052 (psi / ft )(lb / gal)


( rmud = 10.0 lb/gal )
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Calculate Initial Height of Kick


Annular capacity per ft of hole:
vx

(D H D P )L
2 2 2 2 3

gal bbl (12.415 4.5 ) *12 in * 3 4 231 in 42 gal 0.13006 bbls/ft


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Calculate Height of Kick

Height of kick at bottom of hole,


VB 30 bbl hB 230.7 ft v x 0.13006 bbl/ft

hB 231 ft
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Calculate Density of Kick Fluid


The bottom hole pressure is the pressure at the surface plus the total hydrostatic pressure between the surface and the bottom: Annulus Drill String

PB SICP DPMA DPKB SIDPP DPMD


600 0.052 *10 *(10,000 - 231) DPKB 500 (0.052 *10*10,000)

600 5,080 DPKB 500 5,200


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Density of Kick Fluid

DPKB 20 psi
r KB 20 1.67 lb/gal 0.052 * 231

(must be primarily gas!)


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Circulate Kick Out of Hole


NOTE: The bottom hole pressure is kept constant while the kick fluid is circulated out of the hole!

In this case BHP = 5,700 psig


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Constant Annular Geometry


Drillers Method. Conditions When Top of Kick Fluid Reaches the Surface
BHP = const.
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Top of Kick at Surface


As the kick fluid moves up the annulus, it expands. If the expansion follows the gas law, then

P0 V0 PB VB Z 0n0RT0 ZBnBRTB [surface ] [bottom]


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Top of Kick at Surface


Ignoring changes due to compressibility factor (Z) and temperature, we get:

P0 V0 PB VB P0 v 0h0 PB v BhB i.e. P0h0 PBhB (v 0 v B const .)


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Since cross-sectional area = constant

Top of Kick at Surface


We are now dealing two unknowns, P0 and h0. We have one equation, and need a second one. BHP = Surface Pressure + Hydrostatic Head 5,700 = Po + DPKO + DPMA 5,700 = Po + 20 + 0.052 * 10 * (10,000 - hO )

PB hB 5,700 - 20 - 5,200 = Po - 0.52 * Po


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Top of Kick at Surface


480 P0 P0 0.52 * 5700 * 231
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P0 480 P0 684684 0
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P0

480

480 2 4 * 684,684 2

P0 240 862 1 ,102 psi


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40 2,000/40

1,200 50 2,000 800 1,100 40

1,200 + 800

2,000

800 / (0.052 * 14,000)

1.10 13.5 14.6

1,200 * 14.6 / 13.5

1,298

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1,298

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50 2,000 200

0 0

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Csg

DS DS

Csg

Pressure When Circulating

Static Pressure

Drillers Method

First Circulation

Second Circulation
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Csg

DS DS

Csg
Drillers Method

Drillpipe Pressure

Volume Pumped, Strokes


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Engineers Method

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