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PRE-MEDICAL STUDIES

PHYSICAL & ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (Semester 2)


Prepared by: Mrs. Shyamala Devi.A.

SYLLABUS
Electrochemistry Reaction kinetics Introduction to organic chemistry Hydrocarbons Haloalkanes Hydroxy compounds Aromatic compounds Carbonyl compounds Carboxylic acids and derivatives Amines and derivatives

CHAPTER 1 - ELECTROCHEMISTRY Introduction Voltaic cell Cell voltage Standard electrode potential Standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) Electrolysis - introduction Electrolysis of molten salt and aqueous solution Uses of electrolysis

CHAPTER 2 REACTION KINETICS Introduction Rate law Integrated rate equations Collision theory Arrhenius equation

CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Introduction to organic compounds Bonding of carbon atom Classification of carbon atoms Isomerism Hybridization Types of reactions

CHAPTER 4 - HYDROCARBONS
ALKANES Introduction to alkanes Naming of alkanes and cycloalkanes Physical properties of alkanes Reactions of alkanes - combustion - halogenation (mechanism of free radical substitution)

Continued
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Cracking of alkanes

Sources of alkanes
ALKENES Introduction to alkenes Naming of alkenes Physical properties of alkenes

Continued
Reactions of alkenes Halogenation Reaction with hydrogen halides (Markownikoffs rule) Reaction with sulphuric acid Hydrogenation Hydration Oxidation Sources of alkene

CHAPTER 5 - HALOALKANES
Introduction to haloalkanes Classification of haloalkanes Physical properties Reactions of haloalkanes - reaction with cyanide ion - reaction with ammonia - reaction with silver nitrate - alkaline hydrolysis

Continued
Esterification Ether formation Elimination Grignard reagent Sources of haloalkanes

CHAPTER 6 HYDROXY COMPOUNDS

ALCOHOL Introduction Naming of alcohols Classification of alcohols Physical properties of alcohol Making alcohols

Continued
Reactions of alcohol - reaction with hydrogen halides - reaction with phosphorus halides - reaction with sulphur dichloride oxide - oxidation - esterification - reaction with triiodomethane - dehydrogenation

Continued
PHENOL Introduction Physical & chemical properties of phenol Reactions of phenol - reaction with bromine water - reaction with nitric acid - reduction Manufacturing phenol

CHAPTER 7 AROMATIC COMPOUNDS


Introduction to benzene & methylbenzene Physical properties of benzene & methylbenzene Preparation of benzene & methylbenzene

Continued
Reactions of benzene & methylbenzene - nitration - halogenation - Friedel-Crafts acylation - Friedel-Crafts alkylation - combustion - sulphonation - oxidation

CHAPTER 8 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS


Introduction Physical properties Making aldehydes and ketones Reactions of aldehydes and ketones - addition of hydrogen cyanide - addition of aqueous sodium hydrogen sulphate (IV) - reduction - oxidation - with triiodomethane - with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine

CHAPTER 9 CARBOXYLIC ACID & ITS DERIVATIVES CARBOXYLIC ACID Introduction Making carboxylic acids Reactions: - esterifications - reduction - halogenation - oxidation - dehydration

Continued
Acyl chloride - Introduction - Making acyl chlorides - Reactions: - with ammonia and amines - with alcohol and phenol - hydrolysis

Continued
Esters - Introduction - Reactions - hydrolysis - saponification

Continued
Amides - Introduction - Reaction - hydrolysis - dehydration - Hoffmann degradation - reduction

CHAPTER 10 - AMINES
Introduction Classification of amines Making amines Reaction with nitrous acid

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