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Cognitive Apprenticeship

“Mastering knowledge”

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HOME PAGE
• History and Background

• Redefining Learning

• Methods and Examples

• Exploration
HISTORY AND
BACKGROUND
Learning Objectives
• Explain the goal of
cognitive apprenticeship

• Identify and define key


concepts that support
cognitive apprenticeship
Once Upon A Time …
And then …
The “practice” of
thinking?
Traditional
Apprenticeships
• Physical

• External

• Easily Observable

• Psychomotor Domain
Formal Schooling
• Mental

• Internal

• Only observable through


explicit evaluation

• Cognitive Domain
Goal of Cognitive
Apprenticeship
• Recover all the benefits of traditional
apprenticeships, by reconciling
formal schooling objectives with
traditional methodologies.
In other words …

+ =
BUT HOW?
Constructivism
• Learning is a process of
internal negotiation of
meaning

• Learning occurs best in


functional, social, or
cultural context
Constructivist Says ….

“ Knowledge is constructed
by learners as they
attempt to make sense of
their experiences.“

- Driscoll
Situated Learning
• Learning should not be
abstract!

• Activity in which you learn


is an integral part of what
you learn
Foundation for C.A.
• Teach through guided learning

• Make progress and desired


outcomes explicitly
observable

• Situated learning facilitates


this idea
Quick Review
• List some of the concepts
that support the cognitive
apprenticeship theory.

• What is the goal of


cognitive
apprenticeships?
Redefining
Learning
Learning Objectives
• Define cognitive
apprenticeship

• Identify key
differences between
traditional and cognitive
apprenticeships
COGNITIVE
APPRENTICESHIP DEFINED

• A theory outlining
methodology for
teaching complex
cognitive tasks through
guided learning
Redefined
• A THEORY

• HOW TO TEACH

• COMPLEX MENTAL TASKS

• GUIDED LEARNING
Key Differences
Cognitive Traditiona
• Mental l
• Physical
• Internal
• External
• Cognitive
Domain • Psychomotor
Domain
Key Differences
CA Formal Schooling
• Learning observed • Learning observed
explicitly through
evaluation
• External
• Internal
• Situated
• Abstract
Recall …
• How was Cognitive
Apprenticeship defined?

• Explain the major


difference between
traditional and cognitive
apprenticeship.
METHODS AND
EXAMPLES
Learning Objectives
• List the methods
employed by cognitive
apprenticeships.

• Offer examples for each


method employed during
cognitive apprenticeships
The Methods
• Modeling
• Coaching
• Articulation
• Reflection
• Exploration
Modeling
• Expert sets the
example

• E.G. Math teacher


works through a
problem aloud
Coaching
• Student practices skill
while expert offers
feedback and advice

• E.G. Student tries math


problems while expert
watches and guides
Articulation
• Student articulates
thought process

• E.G. Math teacher asks


student to say what he
thinks might be the next
and step, and why
Reflection
• Student compares their
results to the expert

• E.G. After a student


finishes a math problem,
the teacher works through
and shows the correct
steps and solution
Exploration
• Students face new
problems on their own

• E.G. Assigning real world


math problems for
homework
Parting Thoughts
• Many schools apply these
ideas, just poorly.

• Not enough “experts” for


every “apprentice”

• Web-based learning
FINAL REVIEW
• List the 5 methods
employed by C.A.

• What real world examples


can you think of for each
method?
EXPLORATION
• http://www.21learn.org/arch/articles/brown_seely.html

• http://chd.gse.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/strategies/con

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_apprenticeship