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Cigarette smoking- the most prevalent form of drug dependence in the world
Is regarded as the purest pharmacological dependence

Smoking is often viewed as a form of selfmedication to cope with stress, but there is little evidence that nicotine possesses any anxiolytic or antidepressant properties.
Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of death, accounting for 4 million deaths per year

1.1 billion smokers worldwide, 182 million (16.6%) in India Tobacco is addictive in all forms It increases the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and adverse reproductive outcomes Even second hand smoke adversely affects pregnancy outcomes, causes lung cancer and heart disease
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Types of tobacco products



Most prevalent SUD in the US with about 20.6% of the adult US population smoking cigarettes
The prevalence is increasing in most developing countries, whereas it is decreasing in most industrialized countries.

Despite an increase in the proportion of smokers quitting, about 20% of the US population continues to smoke, with a lifetime prevalence of nicotine dependence of 24% Slightly more males than females smoke, although more males than females are successful in stopping smoking.

Prevalence of smoking: 47 percent in men 11 percent in women Dependence in 25% population Mean age of onset in the United States: 16 years Prevalence in psychiatric patients 50 percent, including those with other substance use disorders (80 percent)

Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Prevalence - 18.4% for tobacco smoking
21% for tobacco chewing. Indian women were much less likely to smoke tobacco (3.4% vs. 33.3%), chew tobacco (13% vs. 29%), and use tobacco in both forms (15.5% vs. 50.2%). Srinivasan and Thara 2002 Reported that the prevalence of smoking was 38% among patients with schizophrenia, 24% among patients with mood disorders, and 23% among those with a non-psychotic disorder.


Family, adoption and twin studies strongly suggest the role of genetic factors in cigarette smoking. Comparing twins reared together and apart showed that in men the regular tobacco use has both genetic and rearing-environmental factor accounting for 61% and 20%, respectively (Kendler et al. 2000 ) The overall heritability of nicotine dependence is thought to be 60% (True et al. 1999 , Kendler et al.2000 ).

In one study the genome-wide linkage scan analysis demonstrated a significant association with a region on chromosome 5 in African Americans and on chromosome 7 for European American subjects (Gelernter et al. 2007 ).
Smokers having genes associated with low resting dopamine tone have been shown to have a greater smoking-induced dopamine release than those with alternate genotypes (Brody et al. 2006 ).

Low COMT enzyme activity Met allele is associated with a decreased likelihood of becoming nicotine dependent (Beuten et al. 2006).
There is evidence of a significant association between gamma amino butyric acid B2 (GABAB2) variants and nicotine dependence, implying that this gene might have role in the etiology of this drug addiction


Nicotine is able to achieve the effects by increasing the release of acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the brain and the calcitonin and substance P in the spinal cord (Lloyd and Williams 2000).

It acts in two primary areas of the brain The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (the brain reward pathway), which is related to the euphoriant effects of the drug, The locus coeruleus, which mediates stress reactions and vigilance and relates to the higher mental and cognitive functions.

Involves the perceived benefits/reasons a person smokes, such as a perception that they are able to improve mood and sense of well-being, to satisfy craving, and to provide stimulation and relaxation (Goldstein et al. 1991 ).

For women these beliefs are also in the context of sociocultural attitudes that reinforce the belief that smoking helps to manage and control mood (anger, stress, depression), control weight gain, and increase an adolescents sense of being independent and trendy.


Cues that become associated with the behavior of smoking cigarettes, such as the association with drinking coffee or alcohol, talking on the telephone, taking a work break, or smoking at parties or social functions.
Adolescents and college age young adults, peer smoking and peer-group identification

55- 90% patients with psychiatric disorder vs. 20.6% general population
70-90% - schizophrenia 46% - GAD 43.5% - alcohol abuse or dependence 49% - drug abuse or dependence

36.6% - major depression

ADHD 3x non-ADHD


F17 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of tobacco, character code may be used to specify the clinical conditions Acute Intoxication -rare Harmful use- A pattern of psychoactive substance use that is causing damage to health. The damage may be physical or mental .Harmful patterns of use are often criticized by others and frequently associated with adverse social consequences of various kinds.

Withdrawal state - A group of symptoms of variable clustering and severity occurring on absolute or relative withdrawal of a substance after repeated, and usually prolonged and/or highdose, use of that substance.
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Dependence syndrome A cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a substance or a class of substances takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value Diagnostic guidelines A definite diagnosis of dependence should usually be made only if three or more of the following have been present together at some time during the previous year: (a)a strong desire or sense of compulsion to take the substance; (b)difficulties in controlling substance-taking behaviour in terms of its onset,termination, or levels of use;

(c)a physiological withdrawal state: the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance; or use of the same substance with the intention of relieving or avoiding withdrawal symptoms; (d)evidence of tolerance, such that increased doses of the psychoactive substance are required in order to achieve effects originally produced by lower doses (e)progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests because of psychoactive substance use, increased amount of time necessary to obtain or take the substance or to recover from its effects; (f)persisting with substance use despite clear evidence of overtly harmful consequences

Nicotine use disorder:

Nicotine dependence
Nicotine-induced disorder:

Nicotine withdrawal
Nicotine-related disorder not otherwise specified Nicotine abuse is not included in DSM-IV-TR, because abuse is confined to significant psychosocial problems but not physical problems
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome


Tolerance Withdrawal The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended Persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to stop A great deal of time is spent to obtain, to use, or to recover from the drug Important activities are given up or reduced because of substance use Use continues despite knowledge of problem caused by substance
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome


A. Daily use of nicotine for at least several weeks B. Abrupt cessation of nicotine use, or reduction in the amount of nicotine used, followed within 24 hours by at least four of the following signs: Dysphoric or depressed mood Insomnia Irritability, frustration, or anger Anxiety Difficulty concentrating Restlessness Decreased heart rate Increased appetite or weight gain
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome


C. Clinically significant distress or impairment in social,

occupational, or other important areas of functioning D. The symptoms are not due to a general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder Most withdrawal symptoms peak at 1 to 3 days and last 3 to 4 weeks; 40 percent of smokers have withdrawal that lasts for more than 4 weeks. Craving and weight gain often persist for 6 months or more Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Symptoms of withdrawal mimic , exacerbate , mask symptoms of psychiatric disorder ADR of medication Cessation can reinitiate depressive disorder , alcoholism or other psychiatric disorder
CHIPPERS 5% tobacco users Social context Not to self medicate

Smoking status: current smoker, ex-smoker, or never-smoker; type of tobacco used; quantity and frequency of use Motivation to quit, triggers Motivators for and barriers to quitting Common motivators to quit are health concerns, effects of smoking on others, and social pressure Common barriers to cessation are withdrawal, fear of failure, and fear of weight gain Effects of smoking Clinical examination: oral cavity, respiratory system
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Instruments Used For Assessment of Nicotine Dependence

Fagerstrm Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM 68) European Medical Association Smoking or Health

If willing to quit: 5 As
Ask Advise


Prior quits and problem, Solve anticipated challenges Set quit date Decide on abrupt versus gradual cessation
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome


Recommending and implementing medication and behavior therapy

Arrange: Visit 2 to 3 days after quit date, Follow weekly Monitor smoking, psychiatric status, and side effects If patient lapses, discuss changing therapy If relapses, state willingness to help again in near future

Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

If unwilling to quit:
Elicit personally Relevant risks Discuss known Risks

Elicit Rewards for quitting

Elicit Roadblocks to quitting Repeat at future visit

Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Targets severity of problem Co-occuring disorders Different motivational levels to change 3 phases Engagement phase Quitting phase Relapse prevention phase consideration of three primary biological,psychological, and social factors

QUIT DATE Before quit -Explore and organize social support Minimize cues After quit date Close monitoring Telephone /face to face follow up Advantages continued encouragement to maintain abstinence allow problems with maintaining abstinence provide feedback regarding the health benefits of abstinence

Pharmacological intervention
Nicotine replacement /substitution Non- nicotine pill Combination Non FDA approved experimental options


Most widely used medication option
Available over-the-counter or by prescription Principle -nicotine is the dependence producing constituent of cigarette smoking, and that smoking cessation and abstinence can be achieved by replacing nicotine without the harmful impurities in cigarette smoke.

The substituted nicotine initially prevents significant withdrawal symptoms that may lead to relapse during the early period of smoking cessation.

The substituted nicotine is then gradually tapered and discontinued. Replacement produces a lower overall plasma level of nicotine than that experienced with smoking.

approved in 1984, was the first NRT approved

It slowly releases nicotine from an ion exchange resin when chewed. The nicotine released is absorbed through the buccal mucous membranes.
The NRT gum is available in doses of 2 and 4 mg, and the recommended dosing is in the range of 916 pieces/day.

Nicotine gum is more effective when used in conjunction with psychosocial intervention used for longer than 3 months Tapering may be necessary after 46 months of use

Not effectively utilized in patients with Temporomandibular joint problems, Dental problems, Dentures.

Is not like bubble gum Is crunched a few times and parked between the gum and cheek. Should not be used soon after drinking acidic substances such as coffee, soda, or orange juice Adverse effects include local irritation in the mouth, tongue, and throat, mouth ulcers, hiccups, jaw ache, gastrointestinal symptoms ,anorexia, and palpitations

Nicotine lozenge
FDA approved in 2002 Held under the tongue

Is similar in dosing to the nicotine gum

Less complicated to use

Nicotine patch transdermal delivery system provides continual sustained release of nicotine, which is absorbed through the skin.

Eliminates repeated nicotine use

Compliance rates are higher once-daily dosing its administration is simple and discreet.

Dose of NRT patch is 21 or 15 mg patch

Advantage It can be used despite dental or temporomandibular joint problems. Disadvantage Does not allow for self-titrated dosing, craving, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms 25% -local skin irritation or erythema sleep problems nicotine toxicity

Nicotine nasal spray

is rapidly absorbed produces a higher nicotine blood level than does transdermal nicotine or gum. A single dose of the spray delivers 0.5 mg to each nostril and it can be used one to three times/hr. Onset of action of the spray is the most rapid of all nicotine replacements

An initial concern about the nasal spray had been the potential for abuse because it has the most rapid absorption rate of the NRTs.
It replicates repeated administration of nicotine in smoking, resulting in reinforcing peaks in the plasma level of the drug. Side effects include local airway irritation

Systemic effects include nausea, headache, dizziness, tachycardia, and sweating

Nicotine inhaler
provides nicotine through a cartridge that must be puffed. It mimics the upper airway stimulation experienced with smoking Absorption is primarily through the oropharyngeal mucosa.

Side effects include local irritation, cough, headache, nausea, dyspepsia, the need for multiple dosing

E - cigarette

Bupropion Non-nicotine pill FDA-approved medication option Heterocyclic, atypical antidepressant Blocks the reuptake of both dopamine and norepinephrine Smoking cessation rates appear to improve further when bupropion is combined with the nicotine patch (Nides 1997 ). Adverse events included dry mouth, insomnia, nausea and skin rash C/I -in patients with a history of seizure disorders.


Is an 4 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist.

Relieves craving and withdrawal Mediate the rewarding properties of nicotine through the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic system, and in particular nucleus accumbens. Vareniclines maximum plasma concentration is reached after 34 hr. and following repeated oral doses the steadystate occurs within 4 days.

Should be started 1 week before the set date for patients to stop smoking.
The approved course of treatment is 12 weeks. The recommended dose of 1 mg twice daily should be arrived at after a 1-week titration. The adverse reactions include nausea, vomiting constipation, headache, insomnia and abnormal dreams.

Non-FDA Approved Medications

oral (0.1 mg) and transdermal forms (0.11.3 mg) antihypertensive drug with central sympatholytic activity(locus ceruleus), is a presynaptic alpha-2receptor agonist Adverse effects include sedation, dry mouth, and hypotension.

nonsedative, nonaddictive, nonbenzodiazepine antianxiety agent Decrease craving, anxiety, and fatigue during withdrawal from nicotine

Tricyclic antidepressants
may help reduce nicotine withdrawal, craving, and relapse, including doxepin, imipramine and nortriptyline.

Adverse effects include increased appetite, weight gain, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary hesitancy, and sedation.

Tiagabine, Rimonabant, Selegiline, and immunological approaches.

The activation of nicotinic receptors is moderating the release of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, GABA and glutamate Preclinical research suggests that medications enhancing GABA decreases the rewarding effects of stimulants like nicotine.

Sofuoglu et al. (2004) showed that 8 mg of Tiagabine diminished the craving for cigarettes and increased the cognitive performance in the Classical Stroop test compared to placebo. Rimonabant is a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor developed for the treatment of obesity, tobacco smoking and cardiometabolic risk factors.
STRATUS-Worldwide demonstrated lower relapse rate after 1 year in the 20 mg group (41.5% vs. 32.5%)

Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) is involved in the degradation of dopamine, tyramine and phenylethylamine. PET studies - MAO-B is reduced in the brain of smokers.

After smoking cessation the enzyme activity returns to normal leading to a drop in the level of dopamine and resulting craving.

The immunologic approach

Involves passive or active immunization against nicotine. The antibodies decrease the amount of unbound nicotine in the serum which is the fraction able to enter the brain and reach the receptors. The data showed that CYT002-NicQb promoted and sustained continuous abstinence from smoking from the week 8 to 52 after start of treatment

Psychosocial Treatments
The core psychotherapies in substance abuse motivational enhancement therapy cognitivebehavioral therapy 12-Step Facilitation.
Psychosocial interventions, particularly Behavioral Therapy, have been shown to increase abstinence rates signifi cantly (Ferry et al. 1992 ).

Motivation Enhancement Therapy

Helpful for the smoker who continues to be ambivalent about quitting. Aim to enhance the smokers commitment and motivation to quit smoking. The therapist maintains a patient-centered approach empathic and optimistic. adopts a focused but non-confrontational style

Without an external motivator, a confrontational approach is likely to provoke resistance and treatment dropout.
Poorly motivated patient -increase awareness of the impact of tobacco and the possibility of change. An important initial component of MET is to provide personalized feedback on how tobacco may be affecting their lives and others.

Relapse prevention
Helps clients develop problem solving skills for coping with situations or emotions that might be likely to precipitate relapse Taught skills to manage situations without resorting to smoking Stress management and relaxation training Cognitive approaches involve specific techniques such as reframing or restricting thoughts related to smoking or replacing thoughts about smoking with thoughts intended to enhance motivation or self-efficacy.

Stimulus control strategies

involve removing or altering cues that have been associated with smoking Cue extinction involves repeated exposure of the individual to cues or triggers associated with smoking. Through repeated episodes of exposure that are not followed by smoking, these cues and triggers gradually lose their power to provoke craving.

Nicotine fading
contrasts with an abrupt discontinuation of tobacco May help any smoker try to quit Focuses on disconnecting specific triggers and tobacco usage for example, helping patients not to smoke while in the car, on the phone, or during mealtime.

Aversive techniques include the use of rapid smoking and smoke holding.
Rapid smoking involves inhaling cigarette smoke every 6 seconds until the smoker becomes ill.

Smoke holding involves holding smoke in the mouth and continuing to breathe.
In contingency contracting the patient participates in developing rewards for not smoking or punishment for smoking.

Nicotine Anonymous

Is a relatively new organization (founded in 1985)

Does not have the extensive network Self-help written materials can play an important role in educating patients about the negative health effects of nicotine, the benefits of quitting, and the nature of the addiction. Self-help literature, internet resources, and Nicotine Anonymous can be effectively integrated into formal treatments of brief interventions, individual and group treatments


Nicotine dependence - pediatric disease since most smokers started during adolescence.
As an indication of the addictive potential ,one-third to one half of all children and adolescents who smoke one cigarette progress to become habitual users- gateway drug to the use of other substances The National Health Interview Survey 70% of smokers wanted to quit smoking 33% of smokers try to quit each year 3% of quit attempts without formal treatment are successful 30% of smokers who want to quit are seeking treatment Most individuals relapse trying to quit without treatment relapse within the first 8 days

Treatment benefits

Short-term effects (within 1 month) reduction in respiratory symptoms respiratory infections such as influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis.
Excess risk of death from coronary heart disease is reduced after 1 year and continues to decline over time.

By 1015 years of abstinence

the mortality rate from all causes returns to that of a person who has never smoked. Pulmonary function can also return to normal /improve with abstinence.


School-based programs to prevent the initiation of smoking

Education (e.g. about risks of smoking) Denormalizing smoking (e.g. correcting

overestimates of prevalence of smoking),

Skills training (e.g refusal training) Advocacy (students demonstrate against tobacco industry)

Nicotine Dependence Syndrome


Policy initiatives to reduce smoking prevalence
Tobacco taxation Smoking restrictions

Restriction of tobacco advertising

Counter-advertising via mass media Attacks on the tobacco industry as immoral

Restriction of sales to minors

Warnings on cigarette packages
Nicotine Dependence Syndrome

Tobacco use is common throughout the world with there being about 1.25 billion smokers of which 1 billion are male. Tobacco-caused diseases are the second most common cause of death in the world, including 5 million in 2005 and an estimate of 10 million in 2020 Tobacco use and nicotine dependence has serious health consequences for the user, family members, and others who breathe environmental tobacco smoke or are exposed during pregnancy. Tobacco use and nicotine dependence increases morbidity and mortality.

A large proportion of individuals with nicotine dependence has comorbid psychiatric disorder
APA guidelines recommend that all smokers to be offered medication to aid in smoking cessation Combining medication and behavior therapy increases quit rates over either therapy alone though medications are effective in the absence of psychosocial therapy.