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Geometric Tolerancing - Definitions

Maximum Material Condition (MMC) The condition in which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of material with the stated limits of size, fore example, minimum hole diameter and maximum shaft diameter Least Material Condition (LMC) Opposite of MMC, the feature contains the least material. For example, maximum hole diameter and minimum shaft diameter Virtual Condition The envelope or boundary that describes the collective effects of all tolerance requirements on a feature (See Figure 7-25 TG)

Virtual Condition Envelope All Required Tolerances


20.06 Maximum Envelope

0.06 Maximum Allowable Curvature

20.00 Maximum Allowable Diameter

Feature Control Frame


Geometric Characteristic Symbol Tolerance Datum Reference

.007

Material condition B
.007

This feature must be parallel to Datum B within .007 at MMC (largest cylinder) as measured on the diameter

Tolerance of Form - Straightness


0.03 This cylinder must be straight within 0.03 mm.

19.89 19.76

What it means -

0.03 Tolerance Zone

Concentricity Tolerance Note


.007

.007 Tolerance Zone

XX

YY

This cylinder (the right cylinder) must be concentric within .007 with the Datum A (the left cylinder) as measured on the diameter

What It Means

DIMENSIONING
Requirements 1. Unambiguous 2. Completeness 3. No redundancy
0.83 ' 0.95 ' 3.03 ' 1.22 '

Incomplete dimensioning

1.72 '

Redundant dimensioning

0.86 '

0.83 ' 3.03 '

1.22 '

Adequate dimensioning

TOLERANCE

nominal dimension 1.00 + - 0.05 tolerance means a range 0.95 - 1.05

unilateral bilateral

0.95

+ 0.10 - 0.00

1.05

+ 0.00 - 0.10

1.00 + - 0.05

"TOLERANCE IS ALWAYS ADDITIVE"

0.80 '

0.01 1.00 ' 0.01 ?

1.20 '

0.01

What is the expected dimension and tolerances?


d = 0.80 +1.00 + 1.20 = 3.00 t = (0.01 + 0.01 + 0.01) = 0.03

x
0.80 ' 0.01

?
3.00 ' 0.01

1.20 '

0.01

Maximum x length = 3.01 - 0.79 - 1.19 = 1.03 Minimum x length = 2.99 - 0.81 - 1.21 = 0.97

Therefore x = 1.00 0.03

SURFACE FINISH
w av i n e s s r oughness

roughness widt h

waviness

widt h

STRAIGHTNESS
Tolerance zone between two straightness lines.
0 .0 0 1

Value must be smaller than the size tolerance.

1.000 '

0.002

Measur ed er r o r 0 . 0 0 1

0 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 1

1.000 '

0.002

Design

Meaning

FLATNESS
Tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes.

0 .0 0 1

1.000 '

0.002

p ar al l e l p la n e s 0 .0 0 1

CIRCULARITY (ROUNDNESS)
Tolerance zone bounded by two concentric circles.

0 .0 1

1.00 ' 0.05

At any section along the cylinder

CYLINDRICITY
Tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders within which the cylinder must lie.

0 .0 1

1.00 ' 0.05

Rotate in a V

0 .0 1

Rotate between points

PERPENDICULARITY
A surface, median plane, or axis at a right angle to the datum plane or axis.

.0 0 2 T .0 0 2 A

0.500 '

0.005
1.000 ' 0.005

A 2.000 ' 0.005

ANGULARITY
A surface or axis at a specified angle (orther than 90) from a datum plane or axis. Can have more than one datum.
0 .0 0 5 A

1 .5 0 0 0 .0 0 5 40 3.500 ' 0.005 A

PARALLELISM
The condition of a surface equidistant at all points from a datum plane, or an axis equidistant along its length to a datum axis.

.0 0 1 A

1.000 "

0.005

A 2.000 " 0.005 0 .0 0 1

PROFILE
A uniform boundary along the true profile within whcih the elements of the surface must lie.
0 .0 0 5 A B

0 .0 0 1

RUNOUT
A composite tolerance used to control the functional relationship of one or more features of a part to a datum axis. Circular runout controls the circular elements of a surface. As the part rotates 360 about the datum axis, the error must be within the tolerance limit.
A 1.500 " 0.005 0 .0 0 5 A 0.361 " 0.002

D at u m ax is

Dev iat io n o n each c ir c ular c hec k r ing is less t han t he t o le r an c e .

TOTAL RUNOUT

1.500 " 0.005 0 .0 0 5 A

0.361 " 0.002

D at u m ax is

Dev iat io n o n t he t o t al sw ep t w hen t he p ar t is r o t at ing is less t han t he t o le r an c e.

TRUE POSITION
Dimensional tolerance
1 .0 0 0 .0 1

1 .2 0 0 .0 1

O .8 0 0 .0 2 O 0 .0 1 M A B

Hole center tolerance zone

True position tolerance


1 .0 0

T o le r an c e z o n e 0 . 0 1 d ia

B A

1 .2 0

TOLERANCE VALUE MODIFICATION


O 1 .0 0 0 .0 2 O 0 .0 1 M A B

Produced
1 .0 0

hole size
0.97
1 .2 0

True Pos tol M L 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.04

S 0.01 0.01

B A

out of diametric tolerance

MMC

0.98 0.99

1.00
The default modifier for true position is MMC. 1.01 LMC 1.02 1.03 For M

0.03
0.04 0.05

0.03
0.02 0.01

0.01
0.01 0.01

out of diametric tolerance

the allowable tolerance = specified tolerance + (produced hole size - MMC hole size)

MMC HOLE
LMC hole MMC hole

hole axis t olerance zone

MMC peg will f it in t he hole , axis must be in t he t olerance zone

Given the same peg (MMC peg), when the produced hole size is greater than the MMC hole, the hole axis true position tolerance zone can be enlarged by the amount of difference between the produced hole size and the MMC hole size.