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GENERATOR PROTECTION

Completed by : Mohammad Ibnul Hossain Executive Engineer (Operation) Tongi 80(105) MW GT Power Station Bangladesh Power Development Board E-mail : ibnulhossain@yahoo.com

Possible Faults

Abnormal operating condition

overcurrent / overload unbalanced load over temperature over- and undervoltage over- and underexcitation over- and underfrequency over-fluxing asynchronous running out of step generator motoring failures in the machine control system (i.e. AVR or governor failure) failures in the machine cooling system

In abnormal condition ,

those dont need immediate trip the unit generator

Or transformer but cant continue , at some stage we must trip-out the system.

Different Power Plant Electrical Layout

Damage to the stator core in case of earth-fault

The stator cant withstand with a small amount of ground current even With short period of time. Arrangement must be taken to limit the ground fault current not more than 10 amp.

Stator winding Earthing Practice :

How it is done ? it is achieved by grounding Here we see different types of alternatives. Solidly grounded through a resistor typically in Europe

Grounding transformer , typically for U.S

Allocation of Protection Function

32 Reverse Power

81 O/U Frequency

Turbine

87 Differential 59 over -voltages 24V/HZ over fluxing 49S stator Over load 51 over -current 64s Ground Fault stator Inter-turn

46 Negative Phase Sequence

40 Loss of excitation 71 pole slipping 64R Ground fault Rotor

Rotor

Stator

No. 2 21 24 25 27

DESCRIPTION Time-delay relay Distance relay Over excitation / Volts per Hertz Synchronism-check relay Under voltage relay

27TN
30 32 37 40 46

Third-Harmonic Under voltage relay


Annunciator device Reverse power relay Undercurrent or underpower relay Field excitation relay Negative sequence overcurrent relay

47

Negative sequence overvoltage relay

49

Thermal relay

50

instantaneous AC overcurrent relay

50DT

Split Phase Differential

50/27

inadvertent Energizing

50BF

Breaker Failure

51

AC Inverse Time Overcurrent relay

52

Circuit breaker

Overvoltage relay 59

59D 59N

Third-Harmonic Voltage Differential Ratio


Single Phase Overvoltage Relay

60
63 64F 64B 64S 67 68 69

Voltage balance or loss of potential relay


Pressure device Field Ground relay Brush Lift-Off Detection 100% Stator Ground Protection by Low Frequency Injection AC directional overcurrent relay Power Swing Blocking Permissive relay

74 76 78 79

Alarm relay DC overcurrent relay Out-of-step relay AC reclosing relay

81
81R 83 85 86 87 94

Frequency relay
Rate of Change Frequency relay Transfer device Carrier or pilot-wire relay Lock out relay Differential relay Auxiliary tripping relay

Stator Short Circuit


Consequence of stator short circuit Insulation. windings and stator core can be damaged Large forces, caused by large fault currents. can

give damage to other components in the plant


Risk of explosion and fire

Mechanical stress on generator- and turbine


shafts

Detection of stator short circuits Protection functions Generator differential protection Unit differential protection Directional negative sequence overcurrent protection Under impedance protection Phase overcurrent protection Voltage dependent phase overcurrent protection Under voltage protection Phase overcurrent protection of the unit transformer

Phase to phase fault in the stator winding

Endangering condition Overcurrent Protected object Stator winding Consequences Heating Forces Smelted stator core

GENERATOR AND UNIT TRANS FORMER UNIT SCHEME Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60


OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph Neg.Pha. a. 46 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

GENERATOR AND UNIT TRANS FORMER UNIT SCHEME Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60


OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 Diff(x-f) o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro. Distance

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

GENERATOR AND UNIT TRANS FORMER UNIT SCHEME Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60


OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 Diff(x-f) o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro. Distance

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

GENERATOR AND UNIT TRANS FORMER UNIT SCHEME Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60


OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 Diff(x-f) o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro. Distance

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

GENERATOR AND UNIT TRANS FORMER UNIT SCHEME Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60


OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 Diff(x-f) o/a Diff 87O 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Distance Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Differential Protection
I1
CT1

I2
CT2

i2
i1 Diff. Relay TC i2

i2

i1 i1

Let us , Consider , X protected Equipment CT1 and CT2 same transformation ratio The current flow in the primary and secondary sides of power transformer are identical, assuming ideal transformer. The secondary current i1 and i2 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. So, the net current in the differential coil is zero at load condition (without fault), and the relay will not operate .

Differential Protection
I1
CT1 i2 i1 i2

I2
CT2

Diff. Relay
i1 TC i1 i2

External Fault happens ,

Then , I1 and I2 increases as well as i1 and i2 increases But the phase angle of i1 and i2 will be the same , So , the net current in the TC or Operating Coil = 0 So, the relay will not operate

Differential Protection
I1
CT1 i2 i1 i2

I2
CT2

Diff. Relay
i1 TC i1 i2

is another source to feed the fault , So I2 0 , I diff = i1 + i2 which is very high And trips the Differential Relay

Biased differential relay


I1
CT1 Res. i1 Op i1

I2
CT2

i2

i1

Res.

i2

i2

Biased Diff. Relay

Large external fault cause false operation To make more stable Two Restraining ( Biasing ) coil And One Operating coil is introduced . What is the function of two Restraining ( Biasing ) Coils ? Restraining coils will oppose the operation of operating coil. The relay will operate only when the operating force > the restraining force

Tripping Characteristics of Simple Differential Relay

Tripping Characteristics of Biased Differential Relay with Two Stages (Two Slops )

Connections of CTs for differential protection of generator. Percentage differential relaying of a star connected generator , for phase-phase faults.

Percentage differential relay of a delta connected generator ,for phase-phase fault.

Generator differential protection Operates then what happens ? Shall trip the followings : Turbine: close down active power Generator breaker: if available Field breaker Unit breaker: If no generator breaker

Fire protection

Differential Protection can be used :

The layout of what we are talking about 87G the differential protection of gen87T- the differential protection of step-up transformer 870- both the generator and the step-up transformer.

Phase to phase fault in the transformer winding Endangering condition Overcurrent Protected object Transformer windings Consequences Heating Forces Smelted transformer core

Phase to phase fault in the transformer winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Phase to phase fault in the transformer winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Phase to phase fault in the transformer winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Phase to phase fault in the transformer winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

fault impedance < load impedance So , the fault current > load current. If a short circuit occurs the circuit impedance therefore a fault is accompanied by large current Overcurrent relays sense fault currents and also over-load currents. Overcurrent protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. The basic element in overcurrent protection is an overcurrent relay. The overcurrent relays are connected to the system, normally by means of CTs. Overcurrent relaying has following types : - High speed overcurrent protection. - Definite time overcurrent protection. - Inverse minimum time overcurrent protection. - Directional overcurrent protection (or above any type)

Over-current protection includes the protection from overloads . Overloading of a machine or equipment means the machine is taking Current > rated current . Hence with overloading , there is an associated temperature rise . Overcurrent protection of overloads is generally provided by thermal relay. The permissible rise has limit based on insulation class and material problems.

Over-current protection includes short-circuit protection. Short circuits can be phase faults earth faults winding faults. Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. Fast fault clearance is always desirable on short-circuits When a machine is protected by differential protection, the over-current is provided in addition as a back-up and in some cases to protect the machine from sustained through fault.

Several protective devices are used for over-current protection . These includes -Fuses -Miniature circuit-breakers, molded-case circuit-breakers. -Circuit-breakers fitted with overloaded coils or tripped by over-current relays. -Series connected trip coils operating switching devices. - Over-current relays in conjunction with current transformers.

The primary requirements of over-current protection are : The protection should not operate starting currents permissible overcurrent Current surges. To achieve this The time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays) If time delay cannot be permitted high-set instantaneous relaying is used. - The protection should be co-ordinated with neighbouring over-current protections

CHARACTERISTICS OF RELAY UNITS FOR OVER-CURRENT PROTECTION

There is a wide variety of relay-units. These are classified according to their type and characteristics. The major characteristic include : - Definite characteristic - Extremely Inverse -Inverse - Inverse characteristic - Very Inverse

Inverse characteristic

t 1/I where I= Current in relay coil t = Relay lime K = Constant


Very Inverse characteristic t 1 / In where n = 2 to 8 , according to the requirements.

. Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays

B
AUXILLARY SWITCH Relay Contact Overcurrent Relay

CB
IR IY

Trip Coil

IB

Relay Coil

Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays with addition of a common time-delay relay and an auxiliary relay
AUXILLARY SWITCH Trip Coil R Y B AUXILLARY RELAY

DEFINITE TIME RELAY Relay Contact Overcurrent Relay

CB IR IY IB

Relay Coil

Stator earth fault Damages on the stator iron Increased voltage on healthy phases Small fault currents Sensitivity requirements on fault clearance The fault resistance is normally low at stator earth fault

RESTRICTED EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION BY DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM

, Neutral is earthed through resistance to limit earth-fault currents. With resistance earthing, it is not possible to protect complete winding from earth-fault and the % of winding protected depends on the value of neutral earthing resistor and the relay setting Setting Criteria : The current rating of resistor, resistance value, relay setting, etc. should be selected carefully. Setting should be such that the protection does not operate for earth-faults on EHV side

RESTRICTED EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION BY DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM (Cont.) a

Setting Criteria (Cont.) :


Earth faults are not likely to occur near the neutral point due to less voltage w.r.t. earth. It is a usual practice to protect about 80 to 85% of generator winding against earth-faults. It is a usual practice to protect about 80 to 85% of generator winding against earth-faults. The remaining 20 to 5% winding from neutral side left unprotected by the differential protection. In additional to differential protection, a separate earth-fault protection is provided to take care of the complete winding against earth faults.

RESTRICTED EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION BY DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM (Cont.) a

During earth-fault the current, If flows through a part of the generator winding and neutral to ground circuit. The corresponding secondary current Is flows through the operating coil and restricted earth-fault coil of the differential protection. The setting of the restricted earth fault relay can be selected independent of the setting of the overcurrent relay.

RESTRICTED EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION BY DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM (Cont.)

Here, fault at point f , If fault current , Vaf Voltage If fault is nearer to neutral point Vaf is relatively less . Hence , If is reduced . Not practicable for too sensitive setting , because it will operate in through fault of small Magnitude for inaccurate CT and saturation of CT. Practice to provide 85% protection , the rest 15% is protected by another scheme. Discuss Next.

100% STATOR EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION

Coupling Transformer Ground Circuit

Signal (12.5Hz) continuously injected Stator winding


No Fault Signal feed into stray capacitance . IN Fault Capacitance is by-passed and monitoring Current (of 12.5 Hz) is sensed by the measuring system.

Earth Fault in Stator Winding

Endangering condition Overvoltage in two healthy phases Voltage in the star point Relatively small earth fault current

Protected object Stator winding Consequences Damage to the stator core Risk of second earth fault

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth Fault Close to star point


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth Fault Close to star point


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth fault in transformer HV winding

Endangering condition Overcurrent Protected object Transformer windings

Consequences Heating Forces Smelted transformer core

Earth fault in transformer HV winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth fault in transformer HV winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth fault in transformer HV winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth fault in transformer HV winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth fault in transformer HV winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth fault in transformer LV winding

Endangering condition Overvoltage in two healthy phases Voltage in the star point Relatively small earth fault current
Protected object Transformer winding Consequences Small possibility to damage transformer core Risk of second earth fault

Earth-Fault in the LV Winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth-Fault in the LV Winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth-Fault in the LV Winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Turn to turn turn fault in the stator winding :

Earth-Fault in the LV Winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth-Fault in the LV Winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

51N detected the fault when It developes

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth-Fault in the LV Winding


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

51N detected the fault when It developes

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Rotor Earth Fault : The field circuit of the generator is normally isolated from earth With a single earth fault in the rotor circuit it is possible to have continuous operation without generator damages There is however a risk of a second rotor earth fault. In such a case there will be large current and risk of severe damages. The requirement of fast fault clearance is moderate

Earth-Fault in Rotor Winding : Endangering condition None Protected object Rotor winding

Consequences
Risk of evolving into double earth fault

Earth-Fault in the Rotor


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth-Fault in the Rotor


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Loss of/Under excitation Endangering condition

Stator reactive current component


Protected object Rotor and stator winding Consequences Thermal damage of rotor and stator end regions Asynchronous machine operation Voltage and current variations

Earth-Fault in the Rotor


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Earth-Fault in the Rotor


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Generator motoring protection Generator shall produce active power (i.e. P>0) When it starts to receive the active power it acts as a motor (i.e. P<0) Not dangerous operating condition for machine but it

may be dangerous for the turbine

Causes loss of prime-mover low water flow (hydro) load variations I problems Effects steam units overheating of turbine and turbine blade hydro units cavitations of the blades

Reverse Power Protection Endangering condition Motor operation Protected object Turbine

Consequences Excessive heating of turbine blades (steam units) Mechanical damages to thrust bearing (Francis turbines) Explosion risk for diesel units

Reverse Power Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Reverse Power Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OV 59N FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S Neg.Ph a. 50 O.V 59N

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Negative sequence overcurrent

From asymmetric currents, a negative sequence current component 12, is filtered out. Negative sequence stator currents rotate in a opposite direction from the rotor and consequently induce a 100Hz current component into the rotor. As a consequence rotor ends can over-heat. k is the indicator of how long (Sec.) a generator can withstand one/unit Neg.seq.Cur.

Negative phase sequence (46) Causes unbalanced loads untransposed transmission circuits unbalanced system faults series faults CB pole discrepancy open circuits Features Characteristic adjustable to I22t = K K determines the right tripping time , which is provided by the manufacturer (one/unit Neg.seq.Cur)

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Broken stator winding Endangering condition Unsymmetrical currents Protected object Stator windings Rotor Consequences Rotor overheating Vibrations

Broken transformer winding Endangering condition Unsymmetrical currents Protected object Stator windings Rotor Consequences Rotor overheating Vibrations

Stator Earth Fault Protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Pole slip / out of step protection


Asynchronous running of a synchronous machine with the rest of the system but with excitation intact

Big mechanical impact on turbine and shaft


Pole Slip typically caused by: Long fault clearance time (especially close by 3Ph faults are critical) Inadvertent tripping of a transmission line (increase of transmission impedance between generator and load) Loss of large generator unit

Pole slip / out of step protection

Endangering condition High stator current Possible system blackout


Protected object Rotor shaft and stator winding Consequences Mechanical damages to shaft Asynchronous machine operation (with field intact) Voltage and current variations

Pole slip / out of step protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Pole slip / out of step protection


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

51/67

100%GFP

Neg.Ph a. 50
Gen.st.dif

21
Rev. Pow.

27
OVER.VOL.

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Low frequency Endangering condition Under-frequency Protected object Transformer Steam turbine Consequences Over-excitation Steam turbine vibrations

Low frequency
Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Low frequency
Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

High Frequency Endangering condition Over-frequency

Protected object Turbine Rotor


Consequences Mechanical stresses Turbine vibrations

Low frequency
Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Low frequency
Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Over Voltage Protection:


Endangering condition Over-voltage Improper voltage regulation Protected object Electrical circuits Consequences Increased risk for earth-faults Over-excitation

Over Voltage Protection:


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Over Voltage Protection:


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Over-fluxing Over fluxing protection protects generator and transformer magnetic core against overheating Specially critical during start-up and shut-down Wide frequency operation of the relay important for generator protection

Over Voltage Protection:


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Thermal Overload


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Thermal Overload


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Thermal Overload


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Thermal Overload


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 O.C 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Breaker Failure (50BF)

Stator Thermal Overload


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 BF 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

Stator Thermal Overload


Diff.rel. 87 N OC 51 OC 50/51 Y Y Y Y OC 51 FL 60
OC(Idm/dir.)

Brk.flr. 50BF

OC 50/51

Therm. 49 o/a Diff 87O

U n i t X f o r .

Freq.rel. 81 Ac.Eneg 50
+ REX0061

Out of step

78
Udr.Imp.pro.

OVER EXCIT

24
UND.VOL.

21 BF 50
Gen.st.dif
Rev. Pow.

51/67

27
OVER.VOL.

100%GFP

32
Under curr.

64S
Neg.Pha.

59
FREQ.

87G Therm. 49
100%GFP

37
FIELD.EXCIT

Neg.Ph a. 46 50 O.V 59N

81

40 50THD
100%GFP

+ REX0060

64S

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