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F3 Science Chapter 6

Land and Its Resources

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Minerals
Minerals natural elements or compounds present in Earth's crust characteristics:
hard insoluble in water not decomposed by heat

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Minerals
eg of natural elements: gold, silver, platinum, antimony, arsenic, iron, copper, mercury

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Minerals
eg of natural compounds(metallic elements combined with non-metallic elements):bauxite, heamatite, calcite,malachite

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Minerals
Most minerals, are found as natural compounds in the form of:
oxides sulphides carbonates

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Elements present in minerals that are found as natural compounds


Natural compound Oxide
Carbonate Sulphide Silicate

Mineral Haematite
Cassiterite Calcite Malachite Iron pyrite Galena China clay Calcium silicate

Elements Iron, oxygen


Tin, oxygen Calcium, carbon, oxygen Copper, carbon, oxygen Iron, sulphur Lead, sulphur Aluminium, silicon, oxygen Calcium, silicon, oxygen

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properties of some minerals


1. Metal oxide
hard do not dissolve in water(except potassium oxide,sodium oxide, magnesium oxides and calcium oxide forms alkaline solution) do not decompose on heating decompose upon heating with carbon if less reactive with carbon Equation: metal oxide + carbon ----->metal + carbon dioxide

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properties of some minerals


2. Metal Suphide
hard do not dissolve in water(except potassium sulphide and sodium sulphide) decompose on heating -Breaks down into a metal oxide and releases sulphur dioxide gas Equation: metal sulphide + oxygen ----->metal oxide + sulphur dioxide This gas changes the potassium manganate (VII) solution from purple to colourless

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properties of some minerals


3. Metal Carbonate
hard do not dissolve in water(except potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate) decompose on strong heating-Change to their oxides and carbon dioxide when burnt in air. Equation? metal carbonate------>metal oxide + carbon dioxide The carbon dioxide gas causes lime water to turn cloudly

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6.2 Reactions Between Metal and Non-metal


elements are classified in metals and nonmetals: reacts to form compounds eg: zinc oxide, calcium carbonate.... active metal reacts more vigorously compared to the less reactive metals with non-metals

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6.2 Reactions Between Metal and Non-metal


Reaction of metals with oxygen A metal oxide is formed Equation? Metal + oxygen (heated)--> Metal oxide

metal
magnesium aluminium zinc

reaction
burns with blinding flame burns very brightly glows brightly and burns
glow brightly and produces sparks glows brightly

product
magnesium oxide (white) aluminium oxide(white)
zinc oxide(yellow when hot and white when cold) iron oxide(red) copper oxide(black)

iron copper

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6.2 Reactions Between Metal and Non-metal


Reaction of metals with sulphur A metal sulphide is formed Equation? Metal + Sulphur (heated)--> Metal sulphide
metal magnesium aluminium zinc iron copper reaction burns vigorously burns brightly glows brightly and spreads quickly product magnesium sulphide (white) aluminium sulphide (grey)

zinc sulphide ( white ) iron sulphide(black) coppersulphide(black)

glows and spreads quickly glows and spreads slowly

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6.3 Silicon Compounds


silicon - second most abundant element in the Earths crust. does not exist as a free element---compounds Silicon compounds in the Earths crust silica, silicates

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Silica silicon dioxide


Silica silicon dioxide
compound of silicon and oxygen eg: pure sand,quartz,flint

silicates
compound of silicon, metal and oxygen colour of silicates depends on metal in it, eg: precoius stones (ruby, topaz, jade) other silicates: clay, asbestos

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Silica and Silicates


Insoluble in water Do not react with acid Do not break down when heated Thats why they are very stable in the Earth crust Hence, not easily eroded, found in large quantities in the Earths crust

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uses of silica and silicates


1. silica - glass, cement, concrete, bricks 2.clay - cups,plates, bowls 3.mica- insulators in electric iron 4.asbestos- heat insulators for fireman's clothes 5.silica gel- drying agent 6.sodium silicate - preserve eggs and furniture's varnish 7.coloured silicates- decorative precious stones 8.silicon - electronic chips

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6.4 Calcium compounds


calcium - reactive metal - easily forms compound eg: calcium oxide, calcium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide Calcium carbonate -lime- produce limestone and marbles Consists of calcium, carbon, and oxygen natural calcium: shells of animals, bones and teeth, corals, egg shells

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Calcium Carbonate
Insoluble in water Reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce salt, water and carbon dioxide Equation
calcium carbonate + dilute hydrochloric acid ----> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide calcium carbonate + dilute nitric acid ----> calcium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide

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Calcium carbonate
When heated strongly, calcium carbonate changes to calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide is released
calcium carbonate---> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

Few drops of water are added to calcium oxide, effervescence occur and heat is given off, forming calcium hydroxide When more water is added, it dissolves to form calcium hydroxide solution --limewater

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uses of calcium compounds


1.marble - table tops, statue,covering walls and floor 2.limestone - build roads,cement and glass, smelting of tin ore and iron ore 3.quicklime - lower the acidity of soil, prepare acetylene gas, drying agent, prepare slaked lime 4.slaked lime - making white wash, mortar, caustic soda, water treatment plant

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Petroleum
petroleum- thick, sticky, black oil found trapped in ground formed millions years ago when organism living in sea died and settled at the bottom of sea natural gas- found above the surface of petroleum Mixture of several hydrocarbons, which consist of hydrogen and carbon only

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fractional distillation of petroleum


Hydrocarbons in petroleum are separated by a process called fractional distillation fractional distillation - a process in which petroleum is boiled and different hydrocarbons(fraction) are distilled off at diff temperature hydrocarbons with lower boiling point separated first

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fractional distillation of petroleum


petroleum gas - cooking gas naptha - airplanes fuel petrol - feul for motorcycles, cars and aeroplanes kerosene - fuel for jet plane, kerosene lamp amd detergents diesel - fuel for diesel engine and make polish lubricating oil - engine lubricant fuel oil - fuel for ships and electrical generators paraffin - making wax and polish bitumen - covering road

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natural gas
mixture of gases- propane, butane and ethane used as:
fuel in home, factories and gas power station raw material in making petrochemicals such as urea, ammonia

do not pollute the air - hardly produce soot

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coal
natural fuel resource formed from plants in swampy area plants died and buried become sediment - -high pressure and heat turns them into hard black solid -coal not a good fuel - produces lots of fume and pollutes the environment used for:
fuel for warming house boiling water to get steam which spins turbines and dynamos in power station making dyes, coke, explosives, paints, fertilisers and medicine

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