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Nature of Science

CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Scientific knowledge is tentative Science also has its limitations Science Demands Evidence Science Explains and Predicts Science Is Not Authoritarian

Scientific Process
Steps in Problem solving using the scientific method 1. Observation 2. Problem 3. Data gathering 4. Hypothesis 5. Experimentation 6. conclusion

ANSWER TO ACTIVITY 2
Scientific Process 1. Experimental Design 2. Mystery Box

Problem: A drug manufacturer wants to test the effectiveness of drug X in preventing the outbreak of viral diseases, their research involves giving drug X to a certain group of people, while another group receives a placebo. 1. Which is the control group? Why? (2pts) The people who received the placebo because they did not receive the factor being tested 2. Which is the experimental group? Why? (2 pts) The people who received the drug X because they are the ones who receives the factor being tested 3. Dependent variable? Independent variable? (2pts) The dependent variable is the outbreak of viral disease while the independent variable is the effectiveness of drug X.

4. Why is hypothesis considered an intellectual guess? (2pts) It an intellectual guess because it was based on facts and gathered related literature about the study or research. 5. Why is there a need to have a control group in an experimental design? (2pts) A control group is important because it serves as a basis for comparison. 6. How do you differentiate theories from hypothesis? (2pts) Theories are approved hypothesis while hypothesis is a temporary answer to a question that scientists chosen to investigate 7. What is a falsifiable hypothesis? Give an example. (2pts) A falsifiable hypothesis means that must be a way to test if the hypothesis is false or not. Ex: If a bath a dozen cat, a storm will come.

MYSTERY BOX
Observations: The box is made of a thick cardboard measuring 1 meter from all sides. It weighs 20Kg. 1. List the possible content of the box. Pick one from among the many objects you listed. (2pts) 2. Explain why you picked that object as a possible content of the box (Possible Hypothesis) (1pt)

MYSTERY BOX
3. Outline the procedure or method that will enable you to test your hypothesis. Give a summary of your experimental design that will help you determine if your hypothesis is correct? (5pts) 4. If the result does not agree with your guess, what will you do? (1pt) 5. Give at least three scientific attitudes that you exhibited in trying to guess the content of the mystery box. Explain how these traits help you in guessing correctly the content of the mystery box. (3pts)

MATHEMATICS IN SCIENCE

SI =Systeme International dUnites. based on the metric system of measurement that was developed by France. ideal because it is a decimal system. Simple relations exist between units and equivalents and they are expressed in multiples of 10. SI is consist of a set of units together with a set of prefixes.

SEVEN SI BASE UNITS


Quantity Mass Name kilogram Symbol kg

Time
Length Electrical current

second
meter ampere

s
m A

Temperature
Amount of substance Luminous intensity

kelvin
mole candela

K
mol cd

TABLE OF PREFIXES USED IN SI UNITS


Prefix Abbreviatio n Mega M Kilo K Hekto H Exponential expression 106 103 102 Decimal Expression 1,000,000 1,000 100

Deka Deci Centi Milli Micro nano

da d c m n

101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9

10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001 0.000000001

English system
1 in 1 ft 1 yrd 1 mi 1 ml 1 liq quart 1 dry quart 1 gal 1oz 1lbs = 2.54 cm = 0.3 m = 0.91 m = 1.61 km = 1cm3 = 0.95 L = 1.10 L = 3.80 L = 28.35 g = 0.45 kg

ASSIGNMENT
Read articles on the recent developments of our science and technology: On a 1 whole sheet of paper, answer the following questions. 1. What are the benefits that we get from technology? 2. What are the different disadvantages of technology? 3. Will you support industrialization or not? Justify your answer. Prepare for a SHORT chapter test next meeting. BRING YOUR TEXTBOOK

REFERENCES
Consulta Francisco, Ma. Teresa and Francisco, Levi, Physical Science, Ta-Orbitz publication, 2009. Conceptual Physical Science, 2nd Edition, Hewitt, Paul et. Al., Addison_Wesley Publishing Co. Inc., 1999.