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TRANSPORT OF GAMETES AND FERTILIZATION ><((;)

STIGMA apex of protrusion of follicle bulging from the surface of the ovary

Summary of Events in the Egg Cell after LH surge from the Anterior Pituitary a. Increased vascular permeability b. Leak of plasma proteins into the tissues resulting in local edema; c. Secretion of hyaluronic acid by granulosa cells resulting in loosening of granulosa layers; d. Weakness of the outer follicular wall due to death of some overlying cells; e. Increased antral fluid pressure (about 5-6 mm of H2O)

Structures observed in an ovulated egg a. the ovum b. the zona pellucida c. the corona radiata* (2 to 3 cell layers) d. sticky matrix containing surrounding cells of the cumulus oophorus

Signs of Ovulation a. Mittelschmerz (German for middle pain) b. Slight rise in basal body temperature

EGG TRANSPORT ><((;)

Immotile Cilia Syndrome normally fertile

Uterine Tube x-s

Ectopic pregnancy usually occurs 99% of cases in the uterine tube. It can be found in 1. Ampullary (54%) 2. Isthmic (25%) 3. Fimbrial (17) 4. Interstitial (2%) 5. Ovarian (0.5%) 6. Cervical (0.3%) 7. Abdominal On Intestine (1.2%) 8. Abdominal On Rectouterine pouch (0.05%)

INCREASED PROGESTERONE LEVELS

AMPULLA

ISTHMUS

INTRAMURAL

Tubal Transport 3 to 4 days regardless of whether fertilization occurs

72 hours 8 hours

If fertilization has not occurred, the egg degenerates and is phagocytized.

SPERM TRANSPORT ><((;)

Spermatozoa spend from 4 to 8 days in the epididymis

Seminal Vesicles (60%) Fructose Prostaglandins

Prostate Gland (30%) Citric acid Acid phosphatase Zinc Magnesium ions

Volume of ejaculate 2 to 6 mL Number of spermatozoa 40 to 250 million pH 7.0 to 8.3

2 Modes of Sperm Transport through the Cervix

a. Fast Phase Some spermatozoa can reach the uterus within an hour of ejaculation (relies on muscular movements of the female reproductive tract) b. Slow Phase Involves swimming of spermatozoa through the cervical mucus Rate of travel = 2 to 3 mm/hr

IM HERE!

The Function of the Corpus Luteum of Ovulation, and Pregnancy ><((;)

CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN protein hormone secreted by future placental tissues that help in maintaining functional conditions of corpus luteum.

Corpus albicans

Fertilization ><((;)

Penetration of the Corona Radiata Attachment to and Penetration of the Zona Pellucida Acrosomal Reaction Binding to Plasma membrane and entry into the egg

13 microns thick in humans

Plasma membrane of the egg

IMPORTANT ROLES OF THE ZONA PELLUCIDA 1. It serves as a barrier that normally allows only sperm of the same species to access the egg 2. After fertilization, the modified zona prevents polyspermy; 3. During the early stages of cleavage, it acts as a porous filter through which certain substances secreted by the uterine tube can reach the egg 4. It normally prevents premature implantation of the cleaving embryo into the wall of the uterine tube.

13 microns thick in humans

Plasma membrane of the egg

Cortical granules

SOME MAJORE MAMMALIAN ACROSOMAL ENZYMES Acid proteinase Acrosin Arylaminidase Arylsulfatase Collagenase Esterase -galactosidase -glucoronidase Hyaluronidase Neuraminidase Phospholipase C Proacrosin

PREVENTION TO POLYSPERMY
Slow Block to Polyspermy Cortical granules from egg release its contents to the perivitelline space then to the zona pellucida where sperm receptors are hydrolyzed

Fast Block to Polyspermy Observed in organism that fertilize externally.

IMPORTANCE OF FERTILIZATION 1. STIMULATES THE EGG TO COMPLETE SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION 2. RESTORES THE NORMAL DIPLOID NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES 3. DETERMINES THE SEX OF THE FUTURE EMBRYO 4. CAUSES METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF THE EGG, WHICH IS NECESSARY FOR CLEAVAGE AND SUBSEQUENT EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT TO OCCUR

Probability of Fertilization

Days relative to ovulation