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World War Performance Task

By: Sandra Moua

World War I
World War I was during the 1914-1918 this was a conflict that involved more countries and caused greater destruction than any other war up to its time. Following an assassination in Bosnia Herzegovina, a system of military alliances plunged the main European powers into a war that lasted four years. The war took the lives of about 9 million troops and more than 6 million civilians. WWI is sometimes called the Great War due to this. A number of developments contributed to the awful bloodshed of WWI; Military drafts raised larger armies than ever before; Industries equipped those armies with new and dangerous weapons; Barbed wire slowed the movement of troops across the battlefield, and machine guns fired hundreds of shots in less than a minute; Armies fought from cast systems of trenches. The conditions that led to WWI took shape over several decades. The unification of Germany in 1971 had created a powerful and fast-growing new state in the heart of Europe. In the early 1900s, Germanys quest for power caused a series of crises. Armed forces expanded, and Europes great powers formed alliances and prepared for war.

An assassination on June 28, 1914 sparked the outbreak of WWI. When the fighting began, each nations allies became involved in the conflict. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom they opposed the Central Powers, made of Austria-Hungary and Germany. Other countries later joined each alliance. Germany won early victories on the main European battlefronts. On the Western Front, France and the United Kingdom halted the German advance in September 1914. The United States remained neutral at first. However, many Americans turned against the Central Powers after German submarines began sinking unarmed ships. In 1917, the United States joined the Allies; the support of the United States gave the Allies the resources and resolve they needed to win the war. In the fall of 1918, the Central Powers surrendered. WWI had results that none of the warring nations had foreseen. The war helped topple monarchs in Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The peace treaties after the war carved new countries out of the defeated powers. Europe never regained the leading position in world affairs that it had before the war. The continents weakened condition led to the rise of extreme political groups in some nations. Conditions in Europe at the end of the war set the stage for further devastation in WWII (19391945).

Consequences of the War; Destruction and Casualties: WWI cause incredible destruction; About 9 million soldiers died as a result of the war; about 21 million troops were wounded; Germany and Russia each suffered nearly 2 million battle deaths; and suffering continued well after the armistice as societies struggled to care for widows, orphans, and badly wounded soldiers. Economic Consequences: WWI cost the fighting nations a total of about $337 billion and by 1918, the war was costing about $10 million per hour. Nations raised part of the money to pay for the war through taxes but most of the money came from borrowing, which created huge debts. Governments borrowed from citizens by selling war bonds. Political Consequences: WWI shook the foundations of several governments. WWI gave the Communists an opportunity to seize power in Russia. Social Consequences: WWI brought enormous changes in society. The deaths of so many people left deep psychological scars on the survivors. Millions of people were uprooted. Many people who fled war-torn central and eastern Europe, produced numerous refugees. Many people chose not to resume their old way of life after the war. Urban areas grew as peasants settled in cities instead of returning to farms. Women who had filled jobs in offices and factories grew accustomed to their new-found independence. After the war, many countries, including the United States, granted women the right to vote. Finally, WWI transformed attitudes. Middle- and upper-class Europeans lost the confidence and optimism they had felt before the war. The destruction of the war led many people to doubt their belief in the superiority of European civilization.

The Peace Settlement: In January 1919, representatives of the victorious Allied nations gathered in Paris to draw up a peace treaty. The Paris Peace Conference: Included representatives from 32 nations. Treaty provisions: The treaties that officially ended WWI stripped the Central Powers of territory and arms. The treaties also required the defeated powers to pay steep reparations. Germany blamed Russias mobilization for starting the war. Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost large chucks of its former territory and all of its overseas colonies. France gained control of coal fields in Germanys Saar Valley for 15 years and more. The Treaty of Versailles also created several new international organizations, including the Leagues of Nations. The League was an international association of countries that would work to maintain the peace. The Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon reduced Austria and Hungary to less than one third of their former area. The Treaty of Sevres too Arabia, Lebanon, Mesopotamia (later named Iraq), Palestine, and Syria away from the Ottoman Empire.

The Postwar World: The settlements at the end of WWI disappointed both the victors and the defeated powers. The peacemakers had found it impossible to satisfy the hopes and ambitions of every country and national group. In the US , the Treaty of Versailles was unpopular. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles proved harsher than Germany had expect. Widespread bitterness over the agreement weakened Germany's postwar government. During the 1930's, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler gained power in Germany. Among other things, Hitler promised to defy the Treaty of Versailles and restore German power. The road to World War II had begun.

Alliance System
Alliance System - The act of allying or state of being allied or a formal agreement of treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes.

Allied Powers
Allied Powers To enter into an alliance with another especially by treaty. Nations allied in opposition to the Central Powers in World War I or to the Axis Powers in World War II.

Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans.

Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic The German republic of 1919-33, so called because its constitution was drawn up at Weimar.

World War II
WWII was during the 1939-1945 it was the most destructive war in history. It killed more people, destroyed more property, and disrupted more lives than any other war in history. It probably had more far reaching consequences than any other war. The war brought the about the downfall of Western Europe as the center of world power. It led to the dominance of the Soviet Union and the United States. It set off a power struggle between the two countries call the Cold War. WWII also opened the nuclear age. Estimates suggest about 20 million soldiers died during the wars six years. From 30-40 million civilians also perished. That makes a combined death toll of 50-60 million people. The battlegrounds of WWII spread to nearly every part of the world. WWII began on Sept. 1, 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Poland. An uneasy peace took effect as a war-weary world began to rebuild after WWII. Causes of the war: Nationalism was an extreme form of patriotism that swept across Europe beginning in the 1800s. Supporters of nationalism placed loyalty to their nation above any other public loyalty. They defined nationality by language and ethnicity. They viewed foreigners and minority groups with suspicion and scorn. Such beliefs helped nations justify their conquests of other lands. Nationalism corresponded with feelings of discontent.

The rise of dictatorships (1920s-1930s): Political unrest and poor economic conditions enabled radical dictatorships to come to power in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Japan. In Italy, economic distress after WWI led to strikes and riots. In Germany, the Nazi Part made huge gains during the Great Depression. In Japan, power rested in the hands of Emperor Hirobito, known in Japan as Showa. The war spreads: By the end of 1914, WWII had become a global conflict. Battles erupted in Africa, the Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe, and the Soviet Union. The Axis and the Allies also battled each other at sea and in Asia. The US enters the war: After WWII began in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the neutrality of the United States. Roosevelt and many other people wanted to do more to help the Allies. These people, call interventionists, argued that an Axis victory would endanger democracies everywhere. Roosevelt urged an all aid short war to nations fighting the Axis. The Arsenal of Democracy: Roosevelt hoped to contribute to the defeat of the Axis powers by equipping the Allies. The US then took several steps towards war.

Japan Attacks: By 1940, Japanese forces were still bogged down in China. To force the Chinese to surrender, Japan wanted to cut off the supply route from Southeast Asia. Japan also wanted the rich resources of Burma and Indochina for itself. Japan's military leaders had hopes of an empire. They called it the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japans expansion in Southeast Asia troubled the United States. In 1940, as Japanese troops occupied northern Indochina, the United States cut off vital exports of Japan. Japanese industries relied heavily on petroleum, scarp metal, and other raw materials from the US. After Japan seized the rest of Indochina in 1941, Roosevelt barred the withdrawal of Japanese funds from American banks. On Dec. 7th 1941, the Japanese launched a surprise attach upon the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Two waves of Japanese warplanes san several US ships, including four battleships. They also destroyed more than 180 US aircraft. They Killed 2,400 Americans but lost only about 100 of their own troops. The attack was a success. But bringing the US into the war would prove disastrous for the Japanese Empire and its citizens. D-Day: Soon after the evacuation to Dunkerque in 1940, the United Kingdom started to plan a return to France. In 1942, the United States and the United Kingdom began to discuss a large-scale invasion across the English Channel. To test the German defenses, the Allies raided the French port of Dieppe in August 1942.

D-Day took the Germans by surprise. They responded fiercely. At one landing site, codenamed Omaha Beach, U.S. troops came under heavy fire and barely managed to stay ashore. The Allied forces advanced slowly. Victory in Europe: The Allies began their final assault on Germany in early 1945. Soviet soldiers reached the Oder River, about 40 miles (65 kilometers east of Berlin, in January. Allied forces in the west occupied positions along the Rhine by early March. As they advanced, the Allies discovered horrifying evidence of Nazi brutality. Hitler had ordered the imprisonment and murder of millions of Jews and members of other minority groups in concentration camps. The starving survivors of the death camps gave proof of the terrible suffering of those who had already died. The full nature and reality of the Holocaust came to light in later months and years. The War in Asia and the Pacific: The attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, left the US Pacific Fleet briefly powerless to halt Japans expansion. During the next 6 months, Japanese forces swept across Southeast Asia and the western Pacific Ocean. Japans empire reached its greatest size in August 1942. It stretched northeast to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, west to Burma, and south to the Netherlands Indies. The Allies halted Japans expansion in the summer of 1942. They hacked away at its empire until Japna surrendered in August 1945.

Early Japanese Victories: Japanese bombers struck the British colony of Hong Kong on the south coast of China. They also attacked two US islands in the Pacific Ocean Guam and Wake. The Japanese invaded Thailand the same day. Thailand surrendered within hours and began cooperating with the Japanese. Japanese troops took Hong Kong, Guam, and Wake Islands by the end of the year. Japans string of quick victories astonished even the Japanese. The fall of the Netherlands Indies left Australia unprotected. The capture of Burma brought the Japanese to Indias border. The Tide Turns: Three events in 1942 helped turn the tide against Japan. They were Doolittle raid, the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway. The Doolittle Raid: Staged a bombing raid on the Japanese homeland. The Battle of the Coral Sea: The first navel battle. The Battle of Midway: Air strikes.

Closing in on Japan: Superiority at sea and in the air enabled the Allies to close in on Japan in early 1945. By then, Japan had lost much of its empire. It had also lost most of its aircraft and cargo ships, and nearly all its warships. Hundreds of thousands of Japanese soldiers remained stranded on Pacific islands by passed by the Allies. The atomic bomb: The German-born scientist Albert Einstein had informed President Roosevelt about the possibility of creating a super bomb. It would produce a powerful explosion by splitting the atom. They then set to work on the Atomic Bomb. They tested the first bomb in New Mexico desert in July 1945. Victory in the Pacific: Although Japans emperors had traditionally stayed out of politics, Hirohito urged the government to surrender. On August 14, Japan agreed to unconditional surrender. Resistance Groups: Sprang up in every Axis-occupied country. Resistance began with individual acts of defiance against the occupiers. Propaganda: All the warring nations used propaganda to win support for their policies. Governments aimed propaganda at their own people and at the enemy.

Radio broadcasts reached the largest audiences. Motion pictures, posters, and cartoons were also used. The Nazis were master of propaganda. On the home front: WWII affected the civilian populations of all the fighting nations. But the effects were uneven. Much of Europe and large parts of Asia suffered widespread destruction and hardship. The United States and Canada, far from the battlefronts, were spared most of the horror of war. Producing for the war: WWII required enormous amounts of ships, tanks, aircrafts, and weapons. The United States and Canada built new plants of manufacture war goods. They also renovated automobile and other factories to do the same. Millions of women in the United States and Canada joined the labor force during WWII. They replaced men who were needed for combat operations. Women worked in shipyards and aircrafts factories. The filled many jobs preciously held only by men. Canadian women replaced men on farms as well as in factories. Civilians planted victory gardens to grow their own food so that more rations would be available for troops fighting overseas.

Mobilizing for the war: The United States introduced its first peacetime draft in Sept. 1940. Under the draft law, all men aged 21 through 35 were required to register for military service. The draft was later extended to men 18 through 44. More than 16 million American men served in the armed forces during WWII. About 10 million were drafted. The rest volunteered. About 338,000 women served in the US armed forces. They worked as mechanics, drives, clerks, and cooks. They also filled many other noncombat positions. Paying for the war: The US and Canadian governments brought in money by selling war bonds, certificates, notes, and stamps. The US government raised nearly $180 billion from such sales. Canadas government also raised several billion dollars. Because few people were out of work, income increased during the war year. Treatment of enemy aliens: During WWII, the US government classified more than million newly arrived immigrants from Germany, Italy, and Japan as enemy aliens. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, some Americans directed their rage at people of Japanese ancestry. In 1942, prejudice against the Japanese led the US government to move more than 110,000 West Coast residents of Japanese ancestry to inland relocation camps.

Civilian Life: Conditions were especially difficult in the Soviet Union. Fierce fighting went on there for nearly four years. Stalin ordered retreating Soviet soldiers to burn everything in their path that German troops could use for food or shelter. The Holocaust:: The Nazis persecuted and murdered millions of people, including Jews, Roma, and Slavs. Hitler had started a campaign to exterminate European Jews. The Nazis rounded up Jewish men, women, and children from occupied Europe. They shipped the Jews in railway cars to concentration camps. There the Jews were systematically killed or used as slave labor. Many died from lack of food, disease, or torture. Altogether Hitlers forces killed approximately 6 million European Jews. Europe lost 60% of its prewar Jewish population. Half the victims were Polish. The Nazis also slaughtered Slavs, Roma, socialists, Communists, homosexuals, and people with mental retardation. Consequences of the War: Deaths and Destruction: WWII took more lives and caused more destruction than any other war. Altogether, about 70 million people served in the armed forces of the Allied and Axis nations. About 20 million of them lost their lives. The Soviet Union lost at least 7 million soldiers and about 10 million civilians, much more than any other country. American deaths came to about 400,000. The UK lost a similar amount.

Germany lost 3 million military personnel. About 2 million Japanese military personnel died. Poland suffered 600,000 military deaths and nearly 6 million civilian dead. Italy, Romania, and Yugoslavia all lost 300,000 soldiers or more. Austria, France and Hungary each lost more than 200,000. Displaced Persons: WWII uprooted millions of people. By the wars end, more than 12 million displaced persons remained in Europe. They included orphans, prisoners of war, and survivors of Nazi concentration and slave labor camps. They also included people who had fled invading armies and war torn areas. To help displaced persons, the Allies established the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administrations. UNRRA began operating in 1944 in areas freed from Nazi occupation. The organization set up camps for displaced person. It provided them with food, clothing, and medical supplies. New Power Struggles: (arose after WWII ended). The war had exhausted the leading prewar powers of Europe and Asia. Germany and Japan ended the war in defeat. The UK and France were weakened. The US and the Soviet Union emerged as the worlds leading powers.

Establishing the Peace: Out of the horror of WWII came efforts to prevent war from ever again engulfing the world. In 1943, representatives of the US, the UK, the Soviet Union, and China met in Moscow. They agreed to establish an international organization that would work to promote peace. The four Allied powers met again in 1944 in Washington, D.C. The delegates decided to cal the new organization the United Nations (UN). Peace with Germany: They divided Germany into four zones. The US, the Soviet Union, the UK, and France. Peace with Japan: The military occupation of Japan began in August 1945. Americans far outnumbered other troops in the occupation forces. Peace with other countries: Soon after WWII ended, the Allies began to draw up peace treaties with Italy and the other countries that fought the Allies. The treaties limited the armed forces of the defeated countries.

Totalitarian
Totalitarian Of or relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state.

Nazism
Nazism A form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism and obedience to a strong leader.

Fascism
Fascism An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.

Neutrality Act
Neutrality Act These laws banned arms sales or loans to countries of war.

Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg And intense military campaign intended to bring about a swift victory.

Rationing
Rationing Allowed each person to have only a fixed amount of a particular commodity.

Genocide
Genocide The deliberate killing of a large group of people especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.

Axis Powers
Axis Powers also known as World Powers because they were the most powerful countries. A group of countries that opposed the Allied powers in WWII, including Germany, Italy, and Japan as well as Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Inflation
Inflation - A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.

Rosie Riverder
Rosie Riverder - A fictional character created during WWII to symbolize women working in the war industries. Rosie was often depicted wearing overalls and work gloves with her hair tied up in a polka-dot cloth.

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower Was a five-star general in the United States Army who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany and was the 34th President of the United States.

Atomic Bomb
Atomic Bomb A nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission.

Nagasaki
Nagasaki A city in southwestern Japan, on western Kyushu island. The target of the second atom bomb.

Hiroshima
Hiroshima A city in southwestern Japan, on island of Honshu. The target of the first atom bob.

Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor A harbor near Honolulu, on Oahu, in Hawaii: surprise attack by Japan on the US naval base and other military installations.

Internment Camps
Internment Camps A prison camp; a camp for prisoners of war.

Compare and Contrast


World Wars: 1914-1918 WWI 1939-1945 WWII The most destructive war in history. The conflict involved more countries and caused greater destruction than any other war up to its time. Civil War: Between 1861-1665 Took more American lives than any other war in history. It divided the people of the United States that in some families brother fought against brother. The wars terrible bloodshed left a heritage of grief and bitterness.

Citations
"Dictionary.com - Free Online English Dictionary." Dictionary.com - Free Online English Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2013. <http://dictionary.reference.com/>. Neiberg, Michael S. "World War I." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 16 May 2013. Stokesbury, James L. "World War II." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 16 May 2013. Guelzo, Allen C. "Civil War, American." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 23 May 2013.