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Mixed Mode and Interface Fracture

Rui Huang
The University of Texas at Austin
Spring 2008
Mixed mode fracture
The stress field near a crack tip may be a mixture of modes I,
II, and III crack-tip field.
In brittle, isotropic, homogeneous materials, cracks advance in
the direction that maintains mode I (opening) at the crack tip.
In anisotropic materials or interfaces between different
materials, cracks may grow under mixed mode conditions.
2D Crack-tip field
j i
II
ij
II
I
ij
I
ij
T f
r
K
f
r
K
r
1 1
) (
2
) (
2
) , ( o o u
t
u
t
u o + + =
Plane stress or plane strain, homogeneous, isotropic elastic solid.
The T-stress is important in determining the crack path and its stability
x
1

x
2

r
u
Energy release rate for
straight-ahead growth:
'
2 2
E
K K
G
II I
+
=
Phase angle of mode mix:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
I
II
K
K
arctan
Crack kinking
Criterion I: maximum hoop stress (o
uu
);

O
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
= O

2
tan 8 1 1
tan 2
arctan 2

O
0
-90
90
-70
70
Crack kinking
O
Hutchinson and Suo, Advances in Applied Mechanics 29, 63-191 (1992).
II I
t
II
II I
t
I
K c K c K
K c K c K
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
22 21
12 11
O + O = O
O + O = O
( ) ( )
'
2 2
E
K K
G
t
II
t
I
t
+
=
Criterion II: pure mode I direction (K
t
II
= 0);
Criterion III: maximum energy release rate (G
t
).
The three criteria predict similar directions for cracks in
homogeneous, isotropic elastic solids.
Depth of substrate spalling
d
d/h
d/h = 2.86
0
In general, the spalling depth depends on the elastic mismatch
between the film and the substrate.
Hutchinson and Suo, Advances in Applied Mechanics 29, 63-191 (1992).

Double cantilever beam


By symmetry, the crack on the mid-plane is in pure mode I and
would grow straight ahead.
However, the crack path is unstable. Any slight perturbation to
the crack path will cause the crack to deflect further away from
the mid-plane.
Adhesive joint
Different crack trajectories observed in adhesively bonded double cantilever beam
specimens (Chen and Dillard, Int. J. Adhesion Adhesives 21, 357-368, 2001 )
Other crack patterns
Spiral crack in a drying thin layer
of precipitate. Neda et al., PRL
88, 095502 (2002).
Oscillating cracks in quenched glass plates.
Yuse and Sano, Nature 362, 329-331, 1993.
Fracture of anisotropic materials
Examples: crystals, fiber-reinforced composites
A crack may grow in a mixed-mode path
Anisotropic fracture toughness, depending on
both the crack growth direction and the mode
mix.
Compare the energy release rate, G
t
(), with
the fracture toughness, (), to determine
crack initiation and kink direction.
Interface fracture - debonding
A crack may be trapped and grow along an interface between
two different materials under mixed mode.
Crack-tip field depends on the elastic mismatch and may have
different singularity.
Interface fracture resistance (toughness) depends on the
interface energy (adhesion) as well as the mode mix at the
crack tip.
Elastic mismatch
For an interface between two elastic materials, the crack behavior
depends on the elastic mismatch.
Dundurs parameters:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
1 1
1 1
E E
E E
+

=
+ + +
+ +
=
k k
k k
o
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 1 1
1 1
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
+ + +

=
k k
k k
|
Plane strain:
2
1 v
=
E
E
v k 4 3 =
No mismatch: o = | = 0;
Stiff film on compliant substrate: o > 0;
Compliant film on stiff substrate: o < 0;
If v
f
= v
s
= 0.5, | = 0;
If v
f
= v
s
= 1/3, | = o/4;
Both o and | change signs when the materials
are switched.
o
|
1
-1
-0.25
0.25
Interface crack tip field
x
1

x
2

r
u
) , (
2
] Im[
) , (
2
] Re[
) , ( c u
t
c u
t
u o
c c
II
ij
i
I
ij
i
ij
f
r
Kr
f
r
Kr
r + =
|
|
t
c
+

=
1
1
ln
2
1
Complex stress intensity factor:
2 1
iK K K + =
The stress field reduces to that in a homogeneous solid when | = 0.
Energy release rate for
straight-ahead growth:
( )
2
2
2
1
2
*
1
K K
E
G +

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 1
'
1
'
1
2
1
*
1
E E E
E
1

E
2

Oscillatory singularity
Tractions ahead of an interface crack tip:
( )
r
r
iK K i
i
t
o o
c
2
2 1 21 22
+ = +
x
1

x
2

r
u
When | = 0, the opening and shearing tractions
are coupled; modes I and II are inseparable.
The ratio between the opening and shear tractions varies with r.
Need a length scale to define the mode mix:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

=
=
=
] Re[
] Im[
arctan
) (
) (
arctan
22
21
c
c
o
o

i
i
Kl
Kl
l r
l r
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
arctan
K
K

When | = 0:
Crack face displacements
t tc c
o o
c
2 ) cosh( ) 2 1 (
8
*
2 1
1 2
r
E
iK K
i
r
i
i
+
+
= +
x
1

x
2

r
u
Interpenetration of the crack faces is predicted for | = 0.
Contact of the crack surfaces should be considered (not traction
free any more!)
The predicted contact zone is typically small, thus ignored in
many applications.
Example: two semi-infinite blocks

22
o

21
o
Under the remote loading, at the right crack tip:
2a
( )( )
c
t
c o o
i
a
a
i i iK K K
) 2 (
2 1
21 22 2 1
+ + = + =

Independent of o.
Reduce to Griffiths solution when | = 0.
Take l = 2a, then:


+
+
=
21 22
22 21
2
2
tan
co o
co o

Example: double cantilever beam


M
M
h
h
3 2
) , (
2 1
) 1 (
3 2
h h
Me
iK K K
i
i
|
c
| o e

= + =
Take l = h, then:
) , ( | o e =
) , ( | o e
o
0 = |
4 / o | =
Hutchinson and Suo, Advances in Applied Mechanics 29, 63-191 (1992).
Interface fracture criterion
Following the energy approach by Griffith and Irwin.
Work of adhesion:
12 2 1 0
+ = I
Other contributions to the interface fracture toughness include
plastic dissipation, interface friction:
( ) ( ) ( )
f p
I + I + I = I
0
Interface fracture condition:
( ) I = G
Interface crack often grows under mixed mode, and the interface
toughness strongly depends on the mode mix.
Interface fracture toughness
Liechti and Chai (JAM 59, 295-304, 1992).
h
h
U
V
I

h h
e iU cV E
iK K
i
i
c
| o e

) , (
2 1
) ( * +
= +
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
h
l
ln ) , ( c | o e
cV
U
= tan
For epoxy/glass interface:
935 . 0 = o
188 . 0 = |
060 . 0 = c
=14 e
Choice of the length scale
(I) Specimen size (thickness, crack length, etc.)
(II) Material (intrinsic) length, e.g., size of plastic zone
Rule of transformation:
( ) ( )
1
2
1 1 2 2
ln
l
l
l l c + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
I = I
1
1
2
2
, ln ) , ( l
l
l
l c
Using a specimen length renders the toughness dependent on the
specimen size, while using an intrinsic material length would
avoid such artificial size effect.
Interface toughness measurement
Volinsky et al., Acta Mat. 50, 441-466, 2002.
Superlayer method
Nanoindentation test
Scratch test
Sandwich bending methods (Double cantilever, Four-point
bending, etc.)
Peel test
Bulge and blister test
Superlayer test
Use a superlayer (Cr, epoxy, etc.) to increase the total film thickness and the
residual stress without changing the interface.
Use a thin release layer to introduce an initial debonding.
Measure the critical thickness to determine the interface toughness.
Steady-state energy release and the bilayer curvature after debonding
Phase angle of mode mix?
f
f
SS
E
h
G
2
2
0
o
=
Bagchi et al., J. Mater. Res. 9, 1734-1741, (1994).
Sandwich specimen
Easy to load, with variable mode mix.
Can measure interfacial energy between two thin films when
both are sandwiched.
The effect of residual stress is minimal.
Control of crack path along the interface of interest?
Double cantilever test
h
h
P
P
a
b
2
4
3
2
3 2
2
8
3 12
o
a
Eh
P
h Eb
a
G = =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
h
l
ln ) , ( c | o e
The thin film has little effect on the global energy release rate;
The local mode mix, however, depends on the film.
Variable mode mix may be achieved by asymmetric DCB
Plastic deformation in the film depends on the film thickness
Various crack paths are possible (in-layer, oscillatory, or alternating)
Four-point bend test
h
h
P P
P
P
L L
2
3 2
2
4
21
P
h Eb
L
G
SS
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
h
l
ln ) , ( 41 c | o e
No need to monitor crack length
Mode mix can be varied by asymmetric bending
P
o
Steady state
Charalambides et al, 1989; Cao and Evans; 1989; Ma, 1997; Dauskardt et al., 1998.
Effect of plasticity
Dauskardt et al., Engineering Fracture Mechanics 61, 141-162 (1998).
Lane et al., J. Mater. Res. 15, 2758-2769 (2000).
Intrinsic toughness
Other effects on interface fracture
Interface roughness: increased surface area, asperity
contact and friction
Interface chemistry: segregation, bond density
Environment: moisture, stress corrosion or subcritical
debonding
Lane, Annual Rev. Mat. Res. 33, 29-54 (2003).
Summary
Under mixed-mode fracture, a crack in a homogeneous,
isotropic elastic solid kinks into mode-I path; only mode-I
fracture toughness is needed.
Along an interface, a debonding crack often grows under mixed
mode, with oscillatory singularity; interface toughness depends
on the mode mix.
Various methods are available for interface toughness
measurement; the effects of plasticity, interface roughness,
chemistry, and environment must be carefully considered.
Additional readings
Freund and Suresh: Chapter 4;
Suo, Reliability of Interconnect Structures. In Comprehensive
Structural Integrity (Milne, Ritchie, Karihaloo, Editors-in-Chief),
Volume 8: Interfacial and Nanoscale Failure (Gerberich and
Yang, Editors), Elsevier, 2003.
Hutchinson and Suo, Advances in Applied Mechanics 29, 63-191
(1992);
Rice, J. Appl. Mech. 55, 98-103 (1988).