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2001 APCO/NENA State Training Conference

January 19, 2001

2001 APCO/NENA State Training Conference January 19, 2001
An Antenna is :
An Antenna is :
An Antenna is :

An effective interface between the radio and free space:

An effective interface between the radio and free space: Radio Antenna Free space
Radio
Radio

Antenna

Free space

An Antenna is : An effective interface between the radio and free space: Radio Antenna Free

For Terrestrial Communications, antennas must be directional:

An Antenna is : An effective interface between the radio and free space: Radio Antenna Free
Radio
Radio
An Antenna is : An effective interface between the radio and free space: Radio Antenna Free

Terrestrial Microwave Antennas for

Point-To-Point Communication

Terrestrial microwave antennas generate a beam of RF signal to communicate between two locations.

Point-To-Point communication depends upon a clear line of sight between two microwave antennas.

Obstructions, such as buildings, trees or terrain interfere with the signal.

Depending upon the location, usage and frequency, different types can be utilized.

We will address the basic characteristics of these various types…

Terrestrial Microwave Antennas for Point-To-Point Communication • Terrestrial microwave antennas generate a beam of RF signal

Electrical Performance

Gain
Gain
Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Radiation Pattern Envelope

Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Front to Back

Ratio (F/B)

Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Parameters

Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Discrimination (XPD)

Cross-Polar

Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Isolation (IPI)

Interport

Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Return Loss

(VSWR)

Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar
Electrical Performance Gain Radiation Pattern Envelope Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Parameters Discrimination (XPD) Cross -Polar

Parabolic Antenna Directive Gain

G a (dBi) = 10 log 10 h [ 4 p A a / l 2 ]

Parabolic Antenna Directive Gain G (dBi) = 10 log h [ 4 p A / l

Where:

G a = Antenna Directive Gain (Catalog spec) h = Aperture Efficiency (50-55%) A a = Antenna Aperture Area

  • l =

Wavelength (speed of light / frequency)

Parabolic Antenna Directive Gain G (dBi) = 10 log h [ 4 p A / l
Typical Parabolic Antenna Gain in dBi Antenna Diameter Frequency 19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1
Typical Parabolic Antenna Gain in dBi
Typical Parabolic
Antenna Gain in dBi

Antenna Diameter

Frequency

19.5

25.5

19.5 25.5
43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
43.1
39.5 41.1
37.6
35.1
31.6
37
35.1
33.5
31.6
25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1
  • 43.1 46.6

40.4

37.6

  • 51.1 NA

46.4

44.6

46.6

  • 43.1 44.6

41.1

38.6

35.1

48.2 49.9 NA 41.1 43.6 45.5 47.1 49.1 43.9 49.9 51.8 49.1 51 48.3 46.4 50.7
48.2
49.9 NA
41.1
43.6
45.5
47.1
49.1
43.9
49.9 51.8
49.1 51
48.3
46.4
50.7 NA
NA
NA
NA
52.6 NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
37 34.3 45.1 40.4 38.6 29.1 31.6
37
34.3
45.1
40.4
38.6
29.1
31.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1 31.6 37 35.1 33.5 31.6 25.5 29.1 43.1 46.6
22 GHz 38 GHz 15 GHz 11 GHz 18 GHz 2 GHz 4 GHz 6 GHz
22 GHz
38 GHz
15 GHz
11 GHz
18 GHz
2 GHz
4 GHz
6 GHz
8 GHz
(4.5m) (1.2m) (0.6m) (3.7m) (3.0m) (2.4m) (1.8m) 15 ft 12 ft 10 ft 2 ft 4
(4.5m)
(1.2m)
(0.6m)
(3.7m)
(3.0m)
(2.4m)
(1.8m)
15 ft
12 ft
10 ft
2 ft
4 ft
6 ft
8 ft
Typical Parabolic Antenna Gain in dBi Antenna Diameter Frequency 19.5 25.5 43.1 39.5 41.1 37.6 35.1
Radiation Pattern Concept
Radiation Pattern Concept
Radiation Pattern Concept Antenna Test Range Antenna Source
Radiation Pattern Concept Antenna Test Range Antenna Source
Antenna Test Range Antenna Source
Antenna Test
Range
Antenna
Source

Antenna

Under Test

Radiation Pattern Concept Antenna Test Range Antenna Source Antenna Under Test
Radiation Pattern about Bore sight
Radiation Pattern
about Bore sight
Radiation Pattern about Bore sight
Cut Through Radiation Pattern at Boresight
Cut Through Radiation Pattern at
Boresight
Cut Through Radiation Pattern at Boresight
Front to Back Ratio
Front to Back Ratio

Ratio of the signal level at beam peak to that directed behind the antenna

Considered in intra-system interference calculation (hop overreach)

Expressed in dB

Front to Back Ratio • Ratio of the signal level at beam peak to that directed
Co-Polarization and Cross-Polarization • Co-Polarization – Where Transmit & Receive Antennas have the Same Polarization –

Co-Polarization and

Cross-Polarization

Co-Polarization

Where Transmit & Receive Antennas have the Same Polarization

Either Horizontal or Vertical (HH or VV)

In your System, The Wanted Signal

Cross-Polarization

Where Transmit & Receive Antennas have Different Polarizations Either HV or VH. In your System, The Unwanted Signal

X-polarized patttern pattern XPD Co-polarized antenna Relative Power
X-polarized patttern
pattern
XPD
Co-polarized antenna
Relative Power

Azimuth Angle

Co-Polarization and Cross-Polarization • Co-Polarization – Where Transmit & Receive Antennas have the Same Polarization –
Inter-port Isolation (IPI)
Inter-port Isolation (IPI)

Feed

Horn Towards Reflector Transmit Leakage Signal Signal
Horn
Towards
Reflector
Transmit
Leakage
Signal
Signal

Leakage of Signal Between

Antenna Ports

Internal Noise

Expressed in dB

Inter-port Isolation (IPI) Feed Horn Towards Reflector Transmit Leakage Signal Signal • Leakage of Signal Between
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
(VSWR)

Incident Signal

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Incident Signal Reflected Signal VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1

Reflected Signal

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Incident Signal Reflected Signal VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Incident Signal Reflected Signal VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Incident Signal Reflected Signal VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1
VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1 - (Reflection Coefficient)
VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient)
1 - (Reflection Coefficient)

VSWR : 1.30

Reflection Coefficient : 13% (0.13)

VSWR : 1.20

Reflection Coefficient : 9.1% (0.091)

VSWR : 1.10

Reflection Coefficient : 4.7% (0.047)

VSWR : 1.08

Reflection Coefficient : 3.8% (0.038)

VSWR : 1.06

Reflection Coefficient : 2.9% (0.029)

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Incident Signal Reflected Signal VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1
The Amount of Energy Lost due to Reflected (Returned) Signal Return Loss
The Amount of Energy Lost due to Reflected (Returned) Signal
Return Loss

RL = -20 x log (Reflection Coefficient)

The Amount of Energy Lost due to Reflected (Returned) Signal Return Loss RL = -20 x

RL : 17.8dB Reflection : 13% (0.13)

RL : 20.8dB Reflection : 9.1% (0.091)

RL : 26.7dB Reflection : 4.7% (0.047)

RL : 28.4dB Reflection : 3.8% (0.038)

RL : 30.7dB Reflection : 2.9% (0.029)

VSWR : 1.30

VSWR : 1.20

VSWR : 1.10

VSWR : 1.08

VSWR : 1.06

The Amount of Energy Lost due to Reflected (Returned) Signal Return Loss RL = -20 x
Basic Antenna Types
Basic Antenna Types
Basic Antenna Types Standard Parabolic Antenna Shielded Antenna Focal Plane Antenna GRIDPAK ® Antenna
Standard Parabolic Antenna
Standard
Parabolic
Antenna
Basic Antenna Types Standard Parabolic Antenna Shielded Antenna Focal Plane Antenna GRIDPAK ® Antenna
Shielded Antenna
Shielded
Antenna
Basic Antenna Types Standard Parabolic Antenna Shielded Antenna Focal Plane Antenna GRIDPAK ® Antenna
Focal Plane Antenna
Focal Plane
Antenna
GRIDPAK ® Antenna
GRIDPAK ®
Antenna
Basic Antenna Types Standard Parabolic Antenna Shielded Antenna Focal Plane Antenna GRIDPAK ® Antenna
GRIDPAK ® Antenna
GRIDPAK ® Antenna
GRIDPAK ® Antenna • Grid Reflector • Low Wind load • Single Polarized • Below 2.7GHz

Grid Reflector Low Wind load Single Polarized Below 2.7GHz Shipped in Flat, Lightweight Package

GRIDPAK ® Antenna • Grid Reflector • Low Wind load • Single Polarized • Below 2.7GHz
Standard Parabolic Antenna
Standard Parabolic Antenna
Standard Parabolic Antenna • Basic Antenna • Comprised of – Reflector – Feed Assembly – Mount

Basic Antenna Comprised of Reflector Feed Assembly Mount

Standard Parabolic Antenna • Basic Antenna • Comprised of – Reflector – Feed Assembly – Mount
Focal Plane Antenna
Focal Plane Antenna
Focal Plane Antenna • Deeper Reflector • Edge Geometry • Improved F/B Ratio • Slightly Lower

Deeper Reflector Edge Geometry Improved F/B Ratio Slightly Lower Gain

Focal Plane Antenna • Deeper Reflector • Edge Geometry • Improved F/B Ratio • Slightly Lower
Shielded Antenna
Shielded Antenna
Shielded Antenna • Absorber-Lined Shield • Improved Feed System • Planar Radome • Improved RPE

Absorber-Lined Shield Improved Feed System Planar Radome Improved RPE

Shielded Antenna • Absorber-Lined Shield • Improved Feed System • Planar Radome • Improved RPE
Antenna Efficiency
Antenna Efficiency

Well-designed antennas have

efficiency ratings of 45 - 65%

Efficiency Factor Affected By :

Feed Illumination

Aperture Blockage

Reflector Surface Tolerance

Efficiency can never be 100%

Antenna Efficiency Well-designed antennas have efficiency ratings of 45 - 65% Efficiency Factor Affected By :
Antenna Efficiency Well-designed antennas have efficiency ratings of 45 - 65% Efficiency Factor Affected By :
Antenna f/D Ratio
Antenna f/D Ratio
f/D = 0.333 D f
f/D = 0.333 D f
f/D = 0.333
D
f
f/D = 0.250 D f
f/D = 0.250
D
f
f/D = 0.250 D f

Standard & Shielded Antennas

Focal Plane Antennas

Antenna f/D Ratio f/D = 0.333 D f f/D = 0.250 D f Standard & Shielded
Unwanted Signals
Unwanted Signals
Scattering
Scattering
Unwanted Signals Scattering Diffraction Spillover
Unwanted Signals Scattering Diffraction Spillover

Diffraction

Unwanted Signals Scattering Diffraction Spillover
Unwanted Signals Scattering Diffraction Spillover

Spillover

Unwanted Signals Scattering Diffraction Spillover
Front to Back Ratio
Front to Back Ratio
Front to Back Ratio Focal Plane Antenna Direction of Signal
Focal Plane Antenna Direction of Signal
Focal Plane
Antenna
Direction
of Signal
Standard Parabolic Antenna Direction of Signal
Standard Parabolic Antenna Direction of Signal
Standard Parabolic
Antenna
Direction
of Signal
Direction of Signal Shielded Antenna
Direction of Signal Shielded Antenna
Direction
of Signal
Shielded
Antenna
Front to Back Ratio Focal Plane Antenna Direction of Signal Standard Parabolic Antenna Direction of Signal

Frequency

Frequency
3dB Diameter Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth
3dB

3dB

Diameter

Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth
Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth
Frequency 3dB Diameter Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth 35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75

35

  • 2 GHz

2.33

2.84

3.5

4.38

5.83

  • 17.5 8.75

35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17 0.95 0.78 8.75 3 1.52 0.58 0.71 0.88 1 1.46
11.67
5.83
2.92
1.94
1.46 1.17
0.95
0.78
8.75
3
1.52
0.58
0.71
0.88
1
1.46
2.19
4.38
3.18
0.92
1.94
0.76
0.51
0.38
0.26
0.32
0.3
0.25
0.2
6 GHz 11 8 GHz 23 GHz
6 GHz
11
8 GHz
23 GHz

0.39

0.5

0.64

0.18

0.39 0.5 0.64 0.18 0.12 0.15 0.33 0.41 0.42 0.52
0.12 0.15
0.12
0.15
0.33 0.41 0.42 0.52
0.33
0.41
0.42
0.52
3.89 18 GHz 5 14 GHz 6.36 GHz 1.84 38 GHz 0.49 0.65 0.97 0.63 0.83
3.89 18 GHz 5 14 GHz 6.36 GHz 1.84 38 GHz
3.89
18 GHz
5
14 GHz
6.36
GHz
1.84
38 GHz
0.49 0.65 0.97 0.63 0.83 1.25 2.5 0.8 1 1.59 0.23 0.31 0.46
0.49
0.65
0.97
0.63
0.83
1.25
2.5
0.8
1
1.59
0.23
0.31
0.46
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
1.8 m 2.4 m 3 m 3.7 m 4.5 m 1.2 m 0.6 m 0.3 m
1.8 m
2.4 m
3 m
3.7 m
4.5 m
1.2 m
0.6 m
0.3 m
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17

Beamwidth in Degrees

35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75 11.67 5.83 2.92 1.94 1.46 1.17
Frequency 3dB Diameter Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth 35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75
Frequency 3dB Diameter Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth 35 2 GHz 2.33 2.84 3.5 4.38 5.83 17.5 8.75

Radiation Pattern Envelope

100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Antenna Directivity dB down from
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Antenna Directivity
dB down from Main Lobe
15 20 40 60 80
100 120 140 160 180
0 5
10

Azimuth - Degrees from Main Lobe

Radiation Pattern Envelope 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Antenna Directivity

Radomes

Radomes • Reduce Windloading on Tower • Protection Against Ice, Snow and Dirt

Reduce

Windloading on

Tower

Protection Against Ice, Snow and Dirt

Radomes • Reduce Windloading on Tower • Protection Against Ice, Snow and Dirt

Other Antenna Options

High XPD antennas

Dual beam antennas

Dual band antennas

Low profile antennas

Integrated antennas

Other Antenna Options High XPD antennas Dual beam antennas Dual band antennas Low profile antennas Integrated