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Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules

Reactants are the starting materials of the reaction - the atoms, ions, or molecules
Products are substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction NaCl Na+ + ClReactant Products
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Chapter 2 | Part 2

Types of Chemical Reactions


Synthesis Reaction more complex chemical structure is formed A + B AB Decomposition Reaction chemical bonds are broken to form a simpler chemical structure AB A + B
Exchange Reaction chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed AB + CD AD + CB Reversible Reaction the products can change back to the reactants A + B n AB

Acids, Bases, and Salts


Electrolytes substances that release ions in water
NaCl Na+ + Cl-

Acids electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water


HCl H+ + Cl-

Bases substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions
NaOH Na+ + OH-

Salts electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base


HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl
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Acid and Base Concentration


pH scale - indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in
solution

Neutral pH 7;
indicates equal concentrations of H+ and OH7; indicates a greater concentration of H+
Acidic Relative + Amounts H + of H (red) 3.0 and OH 2.0 apple (blue) gastric juice juice

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5.3 4.2 cabbage tomato juice

8.4 7.4 6.6 Sodium cows Human biocarbonate blood milk 8.0 7.0 Egg Distilled white water 7 Neutral 8 10.5 milk of magnesia

11.5 Household ammonia


Basic OH

Acidic pH less than

6.0 corn pH 0 1 Acidic 2 3 4 5 H+ concentration increases 6

9 10 11 12 13 14 OH concentration increases Basic (alkaline)

Basic or alkaline pH greater than 7;


indicates a greater concentration of OH-

Neutralization and Buffers


Neutralization occurs when an acid and base react to form a salt and water in a displacement reaction.
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Termed neutralization because water is formed neutralizing the solution.

Buffers act as acids when pH is high and bases when pH is low.


Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system.

2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells


Organic v. Inorganic Molecules Organic molecules Contain C and H Usually larger than inorganic molecules Dissolve in water and organic liquids Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids Inorganic molecules Generally do not contain C and H Usually smaller than organic molecules Usually dissociate in water, forming ions Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts
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Inorganic Substances
Water Most abundant compound in living material Two-thirds of the weight of an adult human Major component of all body fluids Medium for most metabolic reactions Important role in transporting chemicals in the body Absorbs and transports heat Oxygen (O2) Used by organelles to release energy from nutrients in order to drive cells metabolic activities Necessary for survival
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Inorganic Substances
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Waste product released during metabolic reactions Must be removed from the body Inorganic salts Abundant in body fluids Sources of necessary ions (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, etc.) Play important roles in metabolism

Organic Substances Carbohydrates


Provide energy to cells Supply materials to build cell structures Water-soluble Contain C, H, and O Ratio of H to O close to 2:1 (C6H12O6) Monosaccharides glucose, fructose Disaccharides sucrose, lactose Polysaccharides glycogen, cellulose

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Organic Substances Carbohydrates


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H C H C

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H H C C C O C H C O H (c) This shape symbolizes the ring structure of a glucose molecule. 11 H O H O H


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O
H H H

C C
C C H

H
O O O H H H

O H H C O H

(a) Some glucose molecules (C6H12O6) have a straight chain of carbon atoms.

(b) More commonly, glucose molecules form a ring structure.

Organic Substances Carbohydrates


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O O

(a) Monosaccharide

(b) Disaccharide

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O O

(c) Polysaccharide
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Organic Substances Lipids


Soluble in organic solvents; insoluble in water Fats (triglycerides)
Used primarily for energy; most common lipid in the body Contain C, H, and O but less O than carbohydrates (C57H110O6) Building blocks are 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids per molecule Saturated and unsaturated
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H H C O

O C

H C H

H C H H C H H C H

H C H H C H H C H

H C H H C H H C H

H C H H C H H C H

H C H H C H H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H

H C H H C H H C H H C H H H

O H C O C

H C H

O H C H O C

H C H

Glycerol portion

Fatty acid portions

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Neutral Fats
Triglycerides are formed from a fatty acid and glycerol (a sugar). They are the most plentiful source of stored energy to our bodies. Two types:
Saturated- contain only single bonds Unsaturated- contains one(mono) or more(poly) double bonds

Short, unsaturated fats are liquids (oils) and come from plants. Long, saturated fats are solid (butter and meat fat) and come from animals.

Organic Substances Lipids


Phospholipids

Building blocks are 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate per molecule Hydrophilic and hydrophobic

Major component of cell membranes


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H H C C O O Fatty acid Fatty acid O H C H O P O O H C H H C H N H

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H
H H

C
C C H

O
O O

Fatty acid
Fatty acid Fatty acid

Water-insoluble (hydrophobic) tail H Water-soluble (hydrophilic) head

Glycerol portion (a) A fat molecule

Phosphate portion
(b) A phospholipid molecule (the unshaded portion may vary)

(c) Schematic representation of a phospholipid molecule

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Organic Substances Lipids


Steroids
Four connected rings of carbon Widely distributed in the body, various functions Component of cell membrane Used to synthesize hormones Cholesterol
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H2 C H2C HO C H

H2 C CH3 HC C C

H2 CH3 H C C C CH CH CH2

CH3 CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH

CH3

CH3

C H2

C H

(a) General structure of a steroid

(b) Cholesterol

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Organic Substances Proteins


Structural material Energy source Hormones Receptors Enzymes Antibodies
R H N H C H C O OH H

Protein building blocks are amino acids Amino acids held together with peptide bonds
H C H H H S C C H OH H N H C C H C H C O OH H C C H

H
N

C
C

H
C

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Organic Substances Proteins


Four Levels of Protein Structure
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Amino acids

Primary structure

Tertiary structure

C H N C R N O C C H N H C R N O C C H N H C C O H H H H R C O H H H O R H H R C H O H H H H H O R

C C N C C N C C N C C N C C N C O H H R R C H C O N N C HO C H O H H C O H R R C N R C H O N C H O

R C H C

H N C H C O H R

Three-dimensional folding

Secondary structure

HO N

R C H O N H R C O

H N C H C O H N R

Quaternary structure

R C

Pleated structure

Coiled structure

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Animation: Protein Denaturation

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Organic Substances Nucleic Acids


Carry genes Encode amino acid sequences of proteins Building blocks are nucleotides
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P
S

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double polynucleotide RNA (ribonucleic acid) single polynucleotide
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Organic Substances Nucleic Acids


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P S P S P S P S P S P S (a)

P S

S
B B

P
S

P S

P
S

P S

P S

S
B P S B B

S
B P S (b) S B B

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