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New Paradigm

Since the 19th Century, revolutionary

changes have been occurring at an unprecedented rate in science and technology with a profound impact on our lives Inventions of ICs, computers, the Internet, discovery and complete mapping of the human genome, and many more have transformed the entire world We have also learned from nature!

Solid foundations of scientific understanding have

been laid to guide the improved usage and processing technology of natural fibers and the manufacturing of synthetic fibers The technology has progressed so that manufactured fibers and their products surpass natural fibers in many aspects Biological routes for synthesizing polymers or textile processing represent an environmentally friendly, sustainable way of utilizing natural resources

Textiles Materials for Every Need

Optimized moisture Increased abrasion

management Better heat flow control Improved thermal insulation Breathability High performance in hazard protection Environmental friendly

resistance Health control and healing aid Body control Easy care High aesthetic appeal Enhanced handle High/low visibility

Engineered Textiles
Engineered textiles are materials that are

developed and/or designed for a special need or application where a very high performance is required Engineered textiles may combine fabrics with glass, ceramics, metal, or carbon to produce lightweight hybrids with incredible properties. Sophisticated finishes, such as silicone coatings and holographic laminates, transform color, texture, and even form.


Appearance Retention



Engineered/Smart Textile Materials

Sustainable Resource No Environmental Harm

Safe Human Use

Smart Technology
We are inspired to mimic nature in order to

create clothing materials with higher levels of functions and smartness Cloning silk fibers was a first step Can the skin -a smart material- be mimicked?

The skin has sensors that can detect pressure, pain, ambient conditions,etc. and can intelligently function with environmental stimuli

Smart/interactive textiles (SIT) are materials

and structures that sense and react to environmental conditions or stimuli, such as those from mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, magnetic or other sources.
SIT are no longer a science-fiction fantasy. For

example, there are in the market self-cleaning carpets, memory-shaped and environmentresponsive textiles, and anti-insomniac microfibers.

According to the manner of reaction, SIT can

be divided into:

Passive smart materials, which can only sense the environmental condition or stimuli, Active smart materials, which sense and react to the condition or stimuli, Very smart materials, which can sense, react and adapt themselves accordingly, and Intelligent materials, which are those capable of responding or activated to perform a function in a manual or pre-programmed manner
How does a smart material work?

Trigger or Stimuli

The sensors provide a nerve Sensing system to detect signals


The processor analyzes and Processing evaluates the signals

Response or Action

The actuators act upon the Actuation detected and evaluated signal either directly or from a central control unit

Areas of R & D
For sensors - actuators: photo-sensitive materials fibre optics conductive polymers thermal sensitive materials shape memory materials intelligent coating materials chemical responsive materials micro-capsules micro- and nano-materials

Areas of R & D (2)

For signal transmission, processing and


neural networks and control systems cognition theory and systems

For integrated processes and products: wearable electronics and photonics adaptive and responsive structures bio-mimics tissue engineering chemical/drug releasing

Fiber Focus

Today, the focus is on specialty products engineered for specific end-uses and on creative ways to market these products

TM is Microdenier nylons are soft textile and Holofiber acan responsive A textured yarn achieve sumptuous with the a dull matte that works effects with energy multicolor inbodys one dye bath. appearance for a natural look system to increase oxygen levels, It is a combination of two accelerate muscle recovery and modified nylons 6,6. One nylon build strength in the body only accepts acid dyes and rejects cationic ones; the other one acts the opposite way

Lastol, a new comfort stretch Copper fibers have antiCopolymers of polyester provide fiber is with blended in hand, cotton shirts inflammatory, anti-microbial and fabrics a soft and blouses, garment-washed anti-fungal properties. Copper is dimensional stability, moisture denims, casual shirts, etc. for gradually absorbed upon direct transportability, ease of dyeing improved processing contact with the skin, efficiencies improves and colorfastness with cotton feel and easy care blood circulation, increases energy and has anti-arthritic properties

Reflective Technology
A technology has been created to convert proprietary materials into miniature reflectors that, when imbedded into fabric by the millions, reflect oncoming light, such as automobile headlights, in a way that illuminates the full silhouette of a person, bicycle or any other object. The reflectors are smaller than a grain of sand and finer than a human hair. They can be imbedded into the weave of almost any fabric. The end result is a fabric that remains soft to the touch and retains its function and fashion. During the day, the treated fabrics are indistinguishable from untreated fabrics.

Thermal Performance Enhancing Fabric

Hydroweave provides extraordinary protection against heat, actively cooling the wearer through evaporation, and helping to maintain the core body temperature in high-heat environments It is a three-layer design that combines special hydrophilic and hydrophobic fibers into a fibrous batting core. The batting is sandwiched between a breathable outer shell fabric and a thermally conductive, inner lining

Flash Dried Fabrics

3XDRY finishing technology was developed to provide a treatment that retains water resistance on the face of a fabric and increases wicking on the back. The two functions are truly separated within the fabric, which remains highly breathable. 3XDRY uses a special process to apply a hydrophilic finish on the back that wicks perspiration away from the body, spreading it over the fabric, and evaporating it quickly on the face. It also has a hydrophobic finish that repels water and dirt. The fabric dries six to eight times faster than untreated fabric. 3XDRY also incorporates a hygienic treatment to control odor.

Protective Flex
The new smart response fiber is proving to enhance passenger safety because of its unique energymanagement properties. Securus is the first in a new category of polyester copolymer fibers being developed for managed-load applications. It combines polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which provides restraining properties, and polycaprolactone (PCL), which provides flexibility and cushioning During a collision, Securus fiber seat belts protect the passenger in a three-step process: holding the passenger securely in place; elongating and cushioning the body as it absorbs the energy of its forward motion; and restraining and limiting that motion.

Thermal Sensitivity
SmartSkin hydrogel is a new technology involving a hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymer, which is embedded in an open-cell foam layer bonded to the inside of a closed-cell neoprene layer in a composite wet suit fabric with nylon or nylon/Lycra outer and inner layers. SmartSkin absorbs cold water that has flushed into the suit and expands to close openings at the hands, feet and neck, preventing more water from entering. Water trapped inside the suit heats up upon body contact. If the water warms up past a transition temperature determined by the proportion of hydrophilic to hydrophobic components, the hydrogel releases water and contracts, allowing more water to flush through the suit. This passive system constantly regulates the internal temperature no batteries or mechanical action are needed.

Phase Change Materials

Outlast temperature-regulating technology effectively recycles body heat, keeping the wearers skin temperature within a comfortable range. Outlast was first developed for use in astronaut uniforms and as a protection for instruments against the severe temperature changes in outer space. The technology is now used in apparel, footwear, equipment and linens. Outlast is a paraffin wax compound that is micro-encapsulated into thousands of miniscule, impenetrable, hard shells. It recycles body heat by absorbing, storing, distributing and releasing heat on a continuous basis, keeping the wearers skin temperature within a comfortable range.

Nano Technology
Nano-particles are permanently attached to cotton or synthetic fibers.

The change occurs at the molecular level, and the particles can be configured to imbue the fabric with various attributes. Nanotechnology combines the performance characteristics associated with synthetics with the hand and feel of cotton

Nano-fibers attached to cotton fibers

Nano-fibers cause liquids to roll off

Nano-fibers 1/1000 the size of a typical cotton fiber are attached to the

individual fibers. The changes to the fibers are undetectable and do not affect the natural hand and breathability of the fabric

Wearable Technology
Clothing is currently supposed to have more functions than just certain climatic protection and good look. These functions can be referred to wearing and durability properties. A revolutionary new property of clothing is to exchange information.Clothing is now capable of recording, analyzing, storing, sending and displaying data, which is a new dimension if intelligent systems. Clothing can extend the users senses, augment the view of reality and provide useful information anytime and anywhere the user goes. Application fields are: Working: displaying helpful data, connecting to the internet or to other people Medicine: monitoring health parameters Security: detecting danger, calling for help

Microbes Begone!
An anti-microbial technology has been developed by which it embeds AgION, a silver-based inorganic zeolite, in a solution-dyed polyester Fossfibre bicomponent fiber. Fossfibre with AgION is suitable for all textile applications in which anti-microbial protection is desired. The bicomponent fibers in Fossfibre are specially designed so that AgION is found only on the sheath, providing controlled release for optimum exposure to the destructive bacteria. The silver ions from the ceramic compound are released at a slow and steady rate. Ambient moisture in the air causes lowlevel release that effectively maintains an anti-microbial surface. As the humidity increases and the environment becomes ideal for bacteria growth, more silver is released.

Fibers have been developed that can quickly change their color, hue, depth of shade or optical transparency by application of an electrical or magnetic field could have applications in coatings, additives or stand alone fibers. Varying the electrical or magnetic field changes the optical properties of certain oligomeric and molecular moieties by altering their absorption coefficients in the visible spectrum as a result of changes in their molecular structure. The change in color is due to the absence of specific wavelengths of light; it varies due to structural changes with the application of an electromagnetic field.

Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering uses living cells and their extracellular components with textile-based biomaterial scaffolds to develop biological tissues for human body repair. The scaffolds provide support for cellular attachment and subsequent controlled proliferation into predefined tissue shapes.

Such an engineering approach would solve the severe shortage problem associated with organ transplants. Textile-based scaffolds have been used for such tissue engineering purposes. The most frequently used textile-based scaffolds are non-woven structures, preferably of biodegradable materials, because then there is no permanent foreign-body tissue reaction toward the scaffolds and, over time, there is more volume space into which the engineered tissue can grow.

Implications for Research

Protective textile materials benefit from the development

of a myriad of high-performance, thermal-stable fibers, and woven composites (passive systems) Protective clothing can greatly improve performance by adding smart/interactive features Smart thermal protective clothing:

Detection of vital signals Global Positioning System (GPS) Wireless, hands-free communication Cooling warming system Incorporated warning signaling

3-layer interlock woven structure

Multi-layered woven structures can increase thermal and fire protection by adding controlled air gaps. They can be tailored to provide other features such as an anti-static system, and physiological comfort

air gaps

5-layer interlock woven structure

In a structured layered system, smart features may be added and supported by the matrix formed

Detection of Vital Signals

Sensatex is developing a SmartShirt System specifically for the protection of public safety personnel, namely firefighters, police officers, and rescue teams. Used in conjunction with a wireless-enabled radio system, the SmartShirt can monitor the health and safety of public safety personnel/victims trapped in a building or underneath rubble with the ability to detect the exact location of victims through positioning capability. In addition to monitoring vital signs, the system can detect the extent of falls, and the presence of hazardous gases; it also offers twoway voice communication

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Textiles integrated with sensory devices driven by a GPS can detect a users exact location anytime and in any weather. Interactive electronic textiles with integrated GPS enhance safety by quickly locating the wearer and allowing the suit to be heated. GPS can provide added safety for firefighters and emergency personnel by facilitating offsite monitoring of vitals

Wireless, hands-free communication

Fabric area networks (FANs) enable electronic devices to exchange digital information, power, and control signals within the users personal space and remote locations. FANs use wireless RF communication links using currents measuring one nanoamp; these currents can transmit data at speed equivalent to a 2400-baud modem

Cooling Warming System

A new high-tech vest has been developed to help keep soldiers, firefighters, etc. alive in the searing temperatures of deserts, mines and major fires. The vest uses a personal cooling system (PCS), which is based on heat pipe technology which works by collecting body heat through vapor filled cavities in a vest worn on the body. The heat is then transferred via a flexible heat pipe to the atmosphere with the help of an evaporative cooling heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is similar in principle to a bush fridge where a cold cloth is put over a container and the temperature drop caused by evaporation keeps the food cool. It is designed to be worn by personnel underneath NBC (nuclear, biological and chemical) clothing, body armor and other protective clothing.

Warning Signaling
A combination of sensors and small flexible light emitting displays (FLED) can receive and respond to stimuli from the body, enabling a warning signal to be displayed or sent. The sensors can monitor EKG, heart rate, respiration, temperature, and pulse oximetry readings. If vital signals were below critical values, a FLED would automatically display, for example, a flashing red light, and a wireless communication system could send a distress signal to a remote location.

What Lies Ahead?

The range and variety of high performance textiles

that have been developed to meet present and future requirements are now considerable Textile materials are now combined, modified and tailored in ways far beyond the performance limit of fibers drawn from the silkworm cocoon, grown in the fields, or spun from the fleece of animals And the future promises even more! What new capacities should we expect as a result of future developments in smart/interactive textiles?

They should include tera and nano scale magnitudes,

complexity, cognition and holism The new capability of tera scale takes us three orders of magnitude beyond the present general-purpose and generally accessible computing capabilities. The technology of nano scale takes us three orders of magnitude below the size of most of todays humanmade devices

It allows to arrange molecules inexpensively in most of the ways permitted by physical laws It lets make supercomputers that fit on the head of a fiber, and fleets of medical nano-robots smaller than a human cell to eliminate cancers, infections, clogged arteries

Fibers are relentlessly replacing traditional materials

in many more applications. From super-absorbent diapers, to artificial organs, to construction materials for moon-based space stations Heat generating/storing fibers/fabrics are now being used in skiwear, shoes, helmets, etc Fabrics and composites integrated with optical fibers sensors are used to monitor bridges and buildings Garments integrated with sensors and motherboards can detect and transmit injury and health information of the wearer

Clothing with its own senses and brain are

integrated with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and mobile phone technology to provide the position of the wearer and directions
Biological tissues and organs, like ears and noses,

are grown from textile scaffolds made from biodegradable fibers Integrated with nano-materials, textiles are imparted with very high energy absorption capacity and other functions such as stain proofing, abrasion resistance, light emission, etc.