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Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd

#1

STABILITY STUDIES





Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd.



Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#2
Voltage stability

Rotor angle stability
Study period: 0-10 sec
Mid-term/long-term stability
Study period: seconds to several
minutes
(slow dynamics)
Small signal stability

Non-oscillatory
Insufficient synchronizing torque
Oscillatory
Unstable control action
Transient stability
Large disturbance
(First swing)
Stability
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#3
Power System Operating States
f, v, loading acceptable,
load met,
n-1 or n-2 contingency acceptable
f, v, loading acceptable
load met
n-1 or n-2 contingency
not satisfied
f, v, loading not
acceptable,
load not met

Normal
Alert Restorative
Cascaded
system

syste
m
In Extremis Emergency
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#4
Control Hierarchy
Pool control centre
System control centre
To other system To other system To other system
Transmission system Power plant
DS DS DS
G G
G
DS: Distribution System
G : Generator
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#5
Power System Subsystem & Controls


f P
tie
P
gtotal
Schedule
System generation control
Load frequency control with
economic allocation
Other generating units
and associated controls
Generating units control
Prime mover & control
Excitation system &
control
Generator
f/N or
P
g
V
t
I
f
P
m
f/N
Transmission Controls
Reactive power, Voltage control,
HVDC transmission and others
P
g
f P
tie
P
g.total
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#6
Power System Stability
Ability of a power system to remain in synchronism.
Classification of transients : Electromagnetic and Electromechanical
S Stability classification

- Transient stability : Transmission line faults, sudden load change, loss of
generation, line switching etc.
- Dynamic stability : Slow or gradual variations. Machine, governor-Turbine,
Exciter modeling in detail.
- Steady state stability : Changes in operating condition. Simple model of
generator.

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#7
R Transient Stability
First swing stability problem
Multi-swing stability problem. (normal size)
Stable
Unstable
Stable
Unstable
t Sec. t Sec.
t sec.
t Sec.
m
2
m
2
m
1
m
1
o
0
o
0
o
0
o
0
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#8
A Assumptions :
1 Synchronous speed current and voltage are
considered.
2 DC off set currents, harmonics are neglected.
Symmetrical components approach.
4 Generated voltage is independent of machine speed.
5 Circuit parameters are constant at nominal system
frequency. (Frequency variation of parameter
neglected).
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#9
Steady State Stability
Stable Unstable
Stable
Unstable
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#10
J : Moment of inertia of rotor masses (kg-mt
2
)
u
m
: Angular displacement of rotor w.r.t. a stationary axis
(mechanical radians)
t : Time (seconds)
T
m
: Mechanical or Shaft Torque ( N-m )
T
e
: Net electrical torque (N-m )
T
a
: Net accelerating torque (N-m)

For generator, T
m
and T
e
are +ve.
Mechanical Equation :
J
d
d t
T T T N m
m
a m e
*
2
2
u
= =
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#11
Reference Axis
Stationary
u
m
Reference axis at
e
sm
c
sm
e
sm
Rotor axis at rotor
speed
u e o
m sm m
t = +
o
m
: Angular displacement of the rotor in mechanical radians.
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#12
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
J
d
dt
T T N m
d
dt
Angular velocityinradians per
J
d
dt
P P watts
M
d
dt
P P Approx
m
sm
m
m m
m
m e
m
m
m
m
m e
m
m e
u
e
o
u o
o
e
u
e
o
o
= +
=
=
=
=
=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
sec.
( )
Where M : Inertia constant = at synchronous speed in Joules-sec per
mechanical radian.
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#13
H Constant is defined as the ratio of stored Kinetic Energy in Mega Joules at
synchronous speed and machine rating in MVA

=
sm
e m
m
sm
e m
m
sm
sm sm
P P
dt
d HS
watts P P
dt
d
M
radian mechanical per MJ
S H
M
MVA MJ
S
M
S
J
H
=
=
=
= =
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
/
2
1
2
1
o
=
o
e
e =
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#14
e m
s
e m
m
sm
e m m
sm
P P
dt
d H
pu P P
dt
d H
S
P P
dt
d H
=
=

=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
o
e
o
e
o
e
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#15
H
f
d
dt
P P pu SwingEquation
If inelectrical d rees
H
f
d
dt
P P pu
H d
dt
P P
d
dt
Let P P pu
H d
dt
pu
H
t
If t H
m e
m e
s
m e s
m e
s
s
s
t
o
o
o
e
e o
e e
e
e
e
e
e e
2
2
2
2
180
2
1
2
1
2
2
=
=
= =
=
= =
= =
deg
,
,
A A
A A
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#16
P
m
P
e
= 1 pu
At t = 0, breaker is opened.
Initially Pe = 1 pu on machine rating Pm = 1pu and kept
unchanged.

In 2H seconds, the speed doubles.

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#17
H
Stored KE
Machine Rating
H Machine Rrating H systemMVA
H H
Machine rating
System MVA
mech system
system mech
=
=
=
Inertia constant (H) is in the range 2 - 9 for various
types of machines. Hence H-constant is usually
defined for machine.

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#18
Relation between H constant and Moment of Inertia is given by:
machine
S
N WR
H
Watts lb f t
lb f t
N WR
KE
f eet in gyration of Radius R
pounds in part rotational of Weight W
f t lb
WR
Inertia of Moment
6
2
2
2
2
2
2
10
550
746
60
2
2 . 32 2
1
746 sec / 550
60
2
2 . 32 2
1
:
:
2 . 32

=
=

=
=
t
t
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#19
Example :
S
mach
= 1333 MVA
WR
2
= 5820000 lb - ft
2

N = 1800 RPM
1333
60
1800 2
2 . 32
5820000
2
1
10
550
746
2
6
(

=

t
H
= 3.2677575 pu (MJ/ MVA)
On 100 MVA base : H = 1333 / 100 = 43.56 (MJ / MVA)
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#20
G
1
,H
1
P
e1
P
m1
G
2
,H
2
P
m2
P
e2
H
f
d
dt
P P
m e
1
2
1
2
1 1
t
o
=
2 2
2
2
2
2
e m
P P
dt
d
f
H
=
o
t
( )
( ) ( )
H H
f
d
dt
P P P P
m m e e
1 2
2
2
1 2 1 2
+

(
= + +
t
o
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#21
o
1
= o
2
= o ; since the machines swing together
( ) Pe P
t d
d
f
H
m
=
2
2
o
t
H = H
1
+ H
2

P
m
= P
m1
+ P
m2
P
e
= P
e1
+ P
e2

G
1
and G
2
are called coherent machines.
Inertia Constant
H
Storedenergyat rated speed inMWs
MVArating
=
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#22
| |
| |
( )
(

=
=

=
=
=

rating MVA
RPM J
rating MVA
J
H
RPM radian mechanical in speed Rated
m kg in inertia of Moment J
MWs J
watts J
energy Kinetic energy Stored
om
om
om
om
2
9
6 2
2
6 2
2
10 48 . 5
10
2
1
60
2
sec / :
:
10
2
1
2
1
e
t
e
e
e
MKS system
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#23
2
2
2 2
356 . 1
2 . 32
) (
m kg
WR
J
f t lb gyration of radius of square part rotating of Weight WR
=
=
British units
Given
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#24
Example
J
WR
kg mt
H
J RPM
MVArating
MWs MVA
Stored energy
H MVArating MWs
Mechanical starting time
H onds
= =
= =
= =
= =

2
2
6
2
32 2
1356 27547 77168
548 10
2
.
. .
.
( )
/
sec
MVA rating : 555
WR
2
: 654158 lb-ft
2

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#25
Typical values
Unit Type

H Constant

Hydraulic unit

2 to 4

Thermal unit



2 pole - 3600 RPM

2.5 to 6

4 pole - 1800 RPM

4 to 10

Non coherent machines

H
f
d
dt
Pm Pe
1
2
1
2
1 1
t
o
=
| |
d
dt
f
H
P P
m e
2
1
2
1
1 1
o t
=

H
f
d
dt
P P
m e
2
2
2
2
2 2
t
o
=
| |
d
dt
f
H
P P
m e
2
2
2
2
2 2
o t
=
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#26
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
d
dt
f
H
P P
f
H
P P
f
d
dt
H P P P P H
H H
H H
H H f
d
dt
H
H H
P P
H
H H
P P
H H
H H f
d
dt
H P H P
H H
H P H P
H H
H
m e m e
m e m e
m e m e
m m
e e
2
2
1 2
1
1 1
2
2 2
2
1 2
2
2 1 1 2 2 1
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
1 2
2
2
1 2
1 1
1
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
2
1 2
2
2 1 1 2
1 2
2 1 1 2
1 2
1
1
1
o o
t
t
t
o o
t
o o
t
o o
=

=

+


=
+

+

+


=

+


+
t
o
f
d
dt
P P
Where
H
H H
H H
P
H P H P
H H
P
H P H P
H H
m e
m
m m
e
e e
=
=
+
=
+
=

+

2
12
2
12 12
1 2
1 2
12
2 1 1 2
1 2
12
2 1 1 2
1 2
,
Relative swing (with reference to one machine) is more important, rather than
absolute swing.
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#27
Swing curves
Relative Plot (o
i
-o)
Absolute Plot
o
1

o
o

o
2


o
3


o
4


o
3


o
2


o
0


o
1


T in sec.
T in sec.
Relative swing (with reference to one machine) is more important, rather than
absolute swing.
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#28
Classical model : (Type 1)
Constant voltage behind transient reactance.
I
E = V
t
+ (0 + jx
d
) I
E
V
t
jx
d
I
Ref.
V
t

I
E
jx
d

+
-
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#29
Power angle equation jX
s

jX
s

E
2 2
Zo
E
1 1
Zo
P
E E
X
s
=
1 2
sino
E
1
: Magnitude of voltage at bus1
E
2
: Magnitude of voltage at bus2
o : o
1
- o
2

X
s
: Reactance

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#30
Machine Parameters
Synchronous : Steady state, sustained.
Transient : Slowly decaying
Sub-transient : Rapidly decaying

E=?
X=?
X X X X X
T T
T T
d q q q d
d do
qo qo
> > > >
>
>
' " "
' "
' "
0
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#31
Parameter

Hydraulic (pu)

Thermal (pu)

x
d


0.6 - 1.5

1.0 - 2.3

x
q


0.4 - 1.0

1.0 - 2.3

x
d



0.2 - 0.5

0.15 - 0.4

x
q



-------

0.3 - 1.0

x
d



0.15 - 0.35

0.12 -0.25

x
q



0.2 - 0.45

0.12 -0.25

T
d0



1.5 - 9.0 s

3.0 -10.0 s

T
q0



-------

0.5 - 2.0 s

T
d0



0.01 - 0.05 s

0.02 - 0.05 s

T
q0



0.01 - 0.09 s

0.02 - 0.05 s

R
a


0.002 - 0.02

0.0015 - 0.005

Typical values
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#32
Stability
Stable
- At o
s
; P
m
= P
e
; net accelerating torque = 0.
- Let P
e
decrease slightly.

-
o increase (acceleration)
o comes back to original position.
- Stable region . Hence o
s
is stable operating point.


ve is P P
dt
d
f
H
e m
+ =
2
2
o
t

P
Pm
mm
m
O
Pe=Pmax sino
ou
o
90
0

os 180
0

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#33
Unstable
- At o
u
; Pm = Pe ; Net accelerating torque = 0 ,
- Let P
e
decrease slightly.
-

o increases, (acceleration)
- P
e
further decreases.
- Chain reaction o never comes back to normal value
.
Hence o
u
is unstable operating point.


ve is P P
dt
d
f
H
e m
+ =
2
2
o
t
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#34
Infinite bus
Generator connected to infinite bus.
- High inertia. H >> compared to other machines in the system.
- Frequency is constant.
- Low impedance. X
d

is very small.
- E is constant and V
t
is fixed.
- Infinite fault level symbol.


System
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#35
Example :
200 MW
1.05 pu V
250 MVA
250 MVA
Slack bus
1 pu - V
H = 3.2 , Z = 10% on own rating , X
d
1
= 25% , tap = 1, R
a
= 0.0 and neglect
R.
1. Establish the initial condition.
2. Perform the transient stability without disturbance.
3. Open the transformer as outage & do the study.
4. How long the breaker can be kept open before closing, without
loosing synchronism.


Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#36
Load Modelling
Load
Load
11 kV
Switched
Capacitor
132/110 kV
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#37
- Vary the tap.
- Switch on the capacitor.
- Determine the response (charge) in load.
- Compute the parameters.
P = P
0
(C
P
+ C
I
. V + C
Z
. V
2
) ( 1+K
f
. f)
- P varies with time, voltage and frequency.
- P
0
varies with time - can be constant at a given time of a day.
- C
P
, C
I
, C
Z
& K
f
are constants.
- V & f are known at any time instant.
- P is known from measurements.
- Solve the non linear problem over a set of measurements.
f
o
P
o
frequency
P
o
w
e
r
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#38
Let the load be 10,000 MW. i.e. P
0
= 10,000
Let for 1 Hz change in frequency, let the load change be 700
MW.
5 . 3
50
1
100
7
: 100 , ;
% 7
000 , 10
700
700
1
700
) (
) ( 700
= =
A
=
=

=
= A
p
f
p
f
p
f o o
p
f o
C
base MVA on then f requency in change unit per the is f pu in is P If
C
number power C f f P
load in decrease C f P
What it implies :
- Initial load 10,000 MW.
- Loss of generation 700 MW
- Increase in load 700 MW
- Frequency 49 Hz.

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#39
Load model paraters
Measurement based approach
Input: Connected load
Measurement: P,V, f over a period
Out put: Parameters
Component based approach
Industrial
Commercial
residential
Agricultural
Load model Parameters
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#40
Component

pf

cP/cV

cQ/cV

cP/cf

cQ/cf

Air conditioner
3 p central heating

0.90

0.088

2.5

0.98

-1.3

Arc furnace

0.7

2.3

1.6

-1.0

-1.0

Industrial Motors

0.88

0.07

0.5

2.5

1.2

Agricultural pumps

0.85

1.4

1.4

5.0

4.0

Residential



Summer

0.9

1.2

2.9

0.8

-2.2

winter

0.99

1.5

3.2

1.0

-1.5

Commercial



summer

0.85

0.99

3.5

1.2

-1.6

winter

0.9

1.3

3.1

1.5

-1.1

Industrial

0.85

0.18

6.0

2.6

1.6

Power plant

0.8

0.1

1.6

2.9

1.8

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#41
Transducer
Regulator
Exciter Generator
Limiter + relay
PSS
Excitation System Components
Ref.
Controller
Regulator
Power
amplifier
(Exciter)
Plant
Feedback elements
Block Schematic

E
t E
fd
V
tr
V
er
V
ref
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#42
R Reactive Power Control

- Synchronous generators
- Overhead lines / Under ground cables
- Transformers
- Loads
- Compensating devices


Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#43

C Control devices:
Sources /Sinks --- Shunt capacitor, Shunt inductor
(Reactor), Synchronous condenser, and SVC.
Line reactance compensation --- Series capacitor
Transformer -----OLTC, boosters

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#44
Speed governor systems :
AGC
Speed
changer
Speed
Governor
Valve
/gate
Electrical
System
Energy Supply
steam or water
Turbine
Generator
Speed
Tie line Power
Frequencies
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#45
Types of Control :
Primary Control : Governor action
Secondary Control : AGC, load frequency control (For selected generators)

1/R 1
1

+
T
T
ws
ws
1
T K
ms D
+
speed
Turbine
Droop(Goveror)
Generator
+
-
Speed
Ref.

Under Frequency operation :


- Vibratory stress on the long low pressure turbine blades
- Degradation in the performance of plant auxiliaries say, induction motor

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#46
Limitations :
Only maximum spinning reserve can be achieved
Turbine pickup delay
Boiler slow dynamics
Speed governor delay
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#47
Trip signal 49.5
0.4 Hz/s
48
10% load rejection
15% load rejection
50% load rejection
30% load rejection
1 Hz/s
4 Hz/s
2 Hz/s
Load shedding :
Other measures :
* Fast valving
* Steam by-passing
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#48
Modules in a program
1. Data reading
2. Initialization

- Steady state load flow
- Control block parameter AVR, Gov., Machine, Motor, PSS,
HVDC, SVC.
3. Disturbance model
4. Control block modelling
5. Machine modelling
6. Load flow solution
7. Protective relay modelling
8. Special functions
- Cyclic load
- Arc furnace
- Re-closure
9. Results output
- Report
- Graph

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#49
Typical swing curve :
Time in seconds
AVR & PSS
Constant E
fd
AVR with no PSS
6 5 4 3 2
90
60
30
1
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#50
Typical swing curve :
0.01
0.090
0.025
5 4 3 2 1
180
120
60
Time in Sec.
Rotal angle
degrees
Integration step size : Typical value : 0.01 seconds,
Range : 0.005 to 0.02 seconds
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#51
AVR : Type 1
1
1
1
+ sT
E E
k
sT
1
2
1+
E
s=f(E
fd
)
sk
sT
3
4
1+
1
2 3
k sT +
PSS
+
-
+
V
ref
+
- E
fd
V
T
Mapping

Range





T
1
T
r


0.01 -- 0.10

T
2
T
a


0.025 -- 0.2

T
3
T
E


0.5 -- 1.0
T
4
T
F1


0.5 -- 1.0
K
1
K
A


25 -- 200
K
2
K
E


-0.5 -- 1.0
K
3
K
F


0.01 -- 0.1

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#52
AVR : Type 2
Mapping

Range





T
1
T
R


0.01 --- 0.05

T
2
T
A


0.01 --- 0.05

T
3
T
E


0.5 --- 1.0

T
4
T
F1


~ 1.0

T
5
T
F2


~ 0.1

k
1
K
A


50--200-400-600

k
2
K
E


~ 1.0

k
3
K
f


0.01 - 0.05



E
fd
1
1
1
+ sT
E
k
sT
1
2
1+
( )( )
s k
sT sT
3
4 5
1 1 + +
Vs
+
-
+
V
ref
E
S
E
1
2 3
k sT +
+
- V
T
V
Rmax
V
Rmin
-
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#53
AVR TYPE 5
V
T
1
1 001 + . s
( )( )
( )
k sT sT
sT sT
1 2 3
4 5
1 1
1 1
+ +
+ + ( )
E
+
-
+
V
ref V
Rmax
V
Rmin
Efd
max
Efd
min
1
1
1
+ sT
Mapping

Range




0.01 Tr

0.01 -- 0.025

T
1
Ts

0.025

T
2
T
E


~ 1.0

T
3
T
F1


~ 0.06

T
4
T
A


40.0

T
5
T
F2


~ 0.024

k
1
k
A


~ 200.0

Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#54
Steam Turbine Governing System
e
ref
+
E
1/T
3
1/S
+
P
ref
P
5
P
max
C
min
E
P-up
P-dn
1+sT
2
e
0
k
1
(1+sT
1
)
e
-
+
-
P
min
C
max
K
1
: 0.05 - 0.04 P
max
: 1.0
T
1
: 0.1 P
min
: 0.0
T
2
: 0.03 P
up
: 0.1
T
3
: 0.4 P
dn
: -1.0


Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#55
Turbine Model
P
1/(1+sT
1
)
1/(1+sT
2
)
k
1
+k
2
k
3
+k
4
(1/1+sT
3
) (1/1+sT
4
)
k
5
+k
6
k
7
+k
8
E E E
Ps
T
1
: 0.26

k
1
: 0.2760

k
1
+ k
2
: VHP

T
2
: 10.0

k
3
: 0.324

k
3
+ k
4
: HP

T
3
: 0.5

k
5
: 0.4

k
5
+ k
6
: IP

T
4
: 99.9

k
7
: 0.0

k
7
+ k
8
: LP




Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#56
Hydro Governor
E E
+
1
1
1
+ sT
-
+
-
1
2
T
Pmin
Pmax
Ps
k
sT
sT
1
3
3
1
.
+
E
k
2
Transient Droop Compensator
Permanent Droop Compensator
e
ref
e
+
+
Cmin
P-dn
Cmax
1
s
P-up
k
1
: 0.36

P
max
: 1.1

T
2
: 0.2

k
2
: 0.04

P
min
: 0.0

T
3
: 5.0

T
1
: 0.05

P
up
: 0.1

P
down
: -1.0



Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#57
Hydro Turbine

Ps
1-sT
1
1+0.5sT
1
D
M
T
1
(Te) : 1.0
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#58
Transient Stability Enhancement

P Philosophy :

1. Minimize the disturbance influence by
minimizing the fault severity and duration.
2. Increase the restoring synchronizing forces.
3. Reduce accelerating torque.
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#59
Transient Stability Enhancement

M Methods :
1. High speed fault clearing.
2. Reduction of transmission system reactance.
3. Regulated shunt compensation.
4. Dynamic Braking.
5. Reactor switching.
6. Independent pole operation of circuit breaker.
7. Single pole switching
8. Fast valaving.
9. Generator tripping.
10. Controlled system separation and load shedding.
11. High speed excitation systems.
12. HVDC transmission link control.
Power Research & Development Consultants Pvt Ltd
#60
M References

1. Dommel, N. Sato Fast Transient Stability Solutions, IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 1972, PP 1643 -
1650.
2. W. Dommel, Digital computer solution of electromagnetic
transients in single and multiphase networks, IEEE Transactions
on Power Apparatus and Systems, April 1969, Vol. PAS-88, PP 388
- 399.
3. IEEE Committee Report, Dynamic Models for Steam and Hydro
Turbines in Power System Studies, IEEE PES Winter Meeting, New
York, Jan./Feb. 1973. (Paper T 73 089-0).
4. IEEE Committee Report, Proposed Excitation System Definitions
for Synchronous Machines, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus
and Systems, Vol. PAS-88, No. 8, August 1969.
5. IEEE Committee Report, Computer representation of excitation
systems, IEEE Transactions Power on Apparatus and Systems,
June 1968, Vol. PAS-87, PP 1460 - 1464.