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FUEL PUMP

MECHANICAL FUEL PUMP

MECHANICAL FUEL PUMP

ELECTRICAL FUEL PUMP

Gasoline electronic Fuel Injection Systems

Introduction
A modern gasoline injection system uses pressure from an electric fuel pump to spray fuel into the engine intake manifold. Engine vacuum is not used to feed fuel into the engine. This makes the gasoline injection system very efficient

A gasoline injection system has several possible advantages over a carburetor type of fuel system. Some advantages are as follows:

Improved atomization. Fuel is forced into the intake manifold under pressure that helps break fuel droplets into a fine mist. Better fuel distribution. Equal flow of fuel vapors into each cylinder. Smoother idle. Lean fuel mixture can be used without rough idle because of better fuel distribution and low-speed atomization.

Lower emissions. Lean efficient air-fuel mixture reduces exhaust pollution. Better cold weather drivability. Injection provides better control of mixture enrichment than a carburetor. Increased engine power. Precise metering of fuel to each cylinder and increased air flow can result in more horsepower output. Fewer parts. Simpler, late model, electronic fuel injection system have fewer parts than modern

The location of fuel injection is one way to classify a gasoline injection system. A single-point injection system, indirect injection system also called throttle body injection (TBI), has the injector nozzles in a throttle body assembly on top of the engine. Fuel is sprayed into the top center of the intake manifold .

Semi Indirect injection multi point injection system(MPI) also called port injection, has an injector in the port (air-fuel passage) going to each cylinder. Gasoline is sprayed into each intake port and toward each intake valve.

An indirect injection system sprays fuel into the engine intake manifold. Most gasoline injection systems are of this type. Direct injection forces fuel into the engine combustion chambers. Diesel injection systems are direct type.
Gasoline electronic Direct Injection System

ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP

The pump must deliver the fuel under high pressure the injectors can spray the fuel into the engine. Electric fuel pumps are usually mounted inside the fuel tank.

Electronic control unit

An Engine Control Unit (ECU), also known as power-train control module (PCM), or engine control module (ECM) determines the amount of fuel, ignition timing and other parameters an internal combustion engine needs to keep running. It does this by reading values from multidimensional maps which contain values calculated by sensor devices monitoring the engine.

Working of ECU

Control of fuel injection: ECU will determine the quantity of fuel to inject based on a number of parameters. The ECU will inject more fuel according to how much air is passing into the engine. If the engine has not warmed up yet, more fuel will be injected . Control of ignition timing An ECU can adjust the exact timing of the spark (called ignition timing) to provide better power and economy.

Control of idle speed Most engine systems have idle speed control built into the ECU. The engine RPM is monitored by the crankshaft position sensor which plays a primary role in the engine timing functions for fuel injection, spark events, and valve timing. Idle speed is controlled by a programmable throttle stop.

Common rail and Pressure sensor

Common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. This accumulator supplies multiple fuel injectors with high pressure fuel.

ELECTRONIC INJECTORS
The fuel injectors are typically ECUcontrolled. When the fuel injectors are electrically activated a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure. The injectors can survive the excessive temperature and pressure of combustion by using the fuel that passes through it as a coolant

Gasoline direct injection


The gasoline is highly pressurized, and injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. It is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern twoand four- stroke petrol engines. Injection may be during intake or compression process Increased turbulence required

Basic Fuel Injection System


Input sensors Give engine operating condition information to the computer. Control module Determines how much fuel the engine needs and controls the fuel injectors. Fuel injectors Meter and atomize the fuel entering the intake manifold or intake port. continued

How system work

Fuel Delivery system


Electrical Fuel Pump draws fuel from tank and forces it into the regulator. Pressure Regulator controls the amount of pressure that enters the injector and any extra fuel is returned to the fuel tank.

Fuel Injector is simply a coil or solenoid operated valve. Spring pressure holds the injector closed. When engaged, the injector sprays fuel into the engine.

Types of Fuel Injection Systems


Gasoline direct injection GDI allows for very lean operation (as much as 35:1) during cruising. Under heavy loads, the system provides nearstoichiometric air/fuel ratios. With these lean ratios, the engines fuel economy is increased by nearly 30% and the emission levels are substantially decreased. Volumetric efficiency is improved because the intake manifold and port only deliver air to the continued cylinders.

Common Input Sensors


Volume Airflow Sensors The airflow sensor (commonly called an airflow meter or vane airflow sensor), measures airflow, or air volume. As air is drawn into the engine, a flap is deflected against a spring. A potentiometer attached to the flap shaft monitors the flap movement and produces a voltage signal. Signal strength increases as the flap opens.
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Common Input Sensors


A typical airflow sensor

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Types of Fuel Injection Systems

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Common Input Sensors


Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor An air temperature sensor mounted in the induction system can measure air temperature and send an electronic signal to the control computer. The computer uses this input along with the air volume input in determining the amount of oxygen entering the engine. Cold, dense air can burn more fuel than the same volume of warm air because it contains more continued oxygen.

Common Input Sensors


Mass Airflow Sensor (MAF) (concluded) The mass airflow sensor converts air flowing past a heated sensing element into an electronic signal. The strength of this signal is determined by the energy needed to keep the element at a constant temperature. As the volume and density (mass) of airflow across the heated element changes, the temperature of the element is affected and the current flow to the element must be adjusted.
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Common Input Sensors


A Mass Airflow Sensor

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Common Input Sensors


Components of a hot wire-type mass airflow sensor

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Common Input Sensors


Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) The MAP sensor measures changes in the intake manifold pressure that result from changes in engine load and speed. The pressure measured by the MAP sensor is the difference between barometric and manifold pressure. At idle, the engine produces a low MAP value. At wide-open throttle, manifold and barometric pressure are equal and a high value is produced.
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Common Input Sensors


A MAP Sensor

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Common Input Sensors


Oxygen Sensor The signals from the exhaust gas oxygen sensor (O2S), or lambda sensor, are used by the PCM to monitor the air/fuel mixture. The signal from an oxygen sensor is based on the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas. When the sensors signal indicates a lean mixture (more oxygen), the computer enriches the air/fuel mixture to the engine. When the sensor reading is rich (less oxygen), the continued computer leans the air/fuel mixture.

Common Input Sensors

Coolant Temperature Sensor The coolant temperature sensor signals the PCM when the engine needs cold enrichment, as it does during warm-up. This adds to the base pulse, but decreases to zero as the engine warms up. continued

Common Input Sensors


Throttle Position Sensor The PCM uses throttle position sensor information to determine throttle position, the rate of throttle opening and closing, and to determine if the throttle is closed or wide open.

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Common Input Sensors


Crankshaft Position Sensor The crankshaft position sensor (engine speed) can provide engine data directly to the PCM or through the ignition system. This also times the start of the injection according to the intake stroke cycle. High speed =>more fuel
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Common Input Sensors

Cranking Enrichment The starter circuit sends a signal for fuel enrichment during cranking operations even when the engine is warm. This is independent of any cold start fuel enrichment demands.
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Control Module Operating Modes


Open loop mode The computer uses pre-programmed values and basic sensor information to determine injector pulse length. Closed loop mode In addition to the other input sensors, the computer uses signals from the exhaust oxygen sensor to determine injector pulse length.
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Engine Sensors