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E_English Grammar Course

Unit 1 Lecture 1. Morphemes - Words

Issues
1. Introduction to Grammar 2. Morphemes and Words 3. Ways of word formation

4. Parts of speech
5. Parts of a sentence

6. Types of phrases, clauses, sentences

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Grammar

Introduction to Grammar

In global sense

In narrow sense

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Grammar

Introduction to Grammar

In global sense
equals competence, a body of knowledge that a

native speaker has about his/her language which


enables to sense speak and understand it. Inhim/her narrow includes word and sentence structure rules,

pronunciation rules, meaning of words/ sentences,


and discourse organization rules.

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Grammar

Introduction to Grammar
refers only to the information of the word and sentence structures. In consists of morphology , the study of words and word global sense

formation, and syntax, the study of phrases, clauses,


and sentences.

In narrow sense

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discourse

Morphemes and Words

sentence phrase

word
morpheme

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discourse

Morphemes and Words


I found myself useless. hated enjoying tired, job, myself

sentence
I actually felt tired of sitting doing nothing. And I hated enjoying the unemployment benefit. I found myself useless. Then I decided to look or a job.

phrase

word

use, -less,

morpheme

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LEXICAL ITEM

Lexical item meaning


= A basic unit of meaning A single word (E.g.: man, boy) Less than a word (E.g.: terr in terror) More than one word (E.g.: to rain dogs and cats)

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Lexical item meaning

LEXICAL ITEM & MEANING Lexical item and meaning has arbitrary relationship.

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MORPHEME

Morpheme - Word
= A minimal meaningful unit E.g.: re/try boy/s

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WORD

Morpheme - Word
= An independent meaningful unit. E.g.: try boy turn return

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Occurrence Types Grammatical

Types of morphemes
Free (words) Function words: prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions.... Content words: Nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives Bound (affixes) inflectional (suffixes)

Lexical

derivational (prefixes, suffixes)

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes

Inflectional morphemes

Derivational morphemes

modify the meaning of an item but not change its parts of speech.

can change meaning of the stem and typically, they change the part of speech.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes

Inflectional morphemes are changes in words to express their semantic and syntactic relationships to other words in the sentence. E.g.: s in Bush says indicates the present tense and the subject is third person and singular.

Derivational morphemes indicate semantic relationships within words.

E.g.: the morpheme ful in beautiful has no connection with other morphemes beyond the word.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes

Inflectional morphemes are regularly distributed. They occur with all or most members of a word class. E.g.: s (3rd person singular present) occurs with most verbs.

Derivational morphemes do not occur across whole classes.

E.g.: not all verbs take the derivational suffix al as refuse, propose.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes

Inflectional morphemes typically occur away from the root.

Derivational morphemes occur close to the root, before inflectional morphemes.

E.g.: the plural morpheme s occurs at the end of a word, after all other morphemes.

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Inflectional vs. Derivational morphemes

Inflectional morphemes -s: 3rd person sig present -ed: past tense -ing: present participle -en: past participle -s: Plural -s: possessive -er:comparative -est: superlative

Derivational morphemes There are a large number of derivational morphemes, which can be prefixes or suffixes.

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Morphological processes of word formation


Prefixation:

adding a prefix to the base E.g.: Non-stop Predict

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Morphological processes of word formation


Suffixation:

adding a suffix to the base E.g.: Economist Grammatical

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Morphological processes of word formation


Conversion:

a change of word-classes without affix. E.g.: Import (n), (v) Abstract (n), (adj)

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Morphological processes of word formation


Compounding:

word formation from two or more bases. E.g. Greenhouse effect Desktop computer

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Morphological processes of word formation


Clipping:

shortening a word E.g.: Phone from telephone Graph from photograph Flu from influenza

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Morphological processes of word formation


Reduplication:

word formation from two or more either identical or slightly different elements. E.g.: Goody-goody Tick-tock Seesaw Wishy-washy Tip-top

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Morphological processes of word formation

Blending:

word formation from two separate forms. E.g.: Motel from motor and hotel Smog from smoke and fog.

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Morphological processes of word formation


Acronym:

word formation from initial letters of a series of words. E.g.: TV from television FAQ from frequently asked question.

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Others

Morphological processes of word formation


Coinage Borrowing Backformation Sound + stress interchange Sound imitation E.g.: aspirin

E.g.: robot
E.g.: opt (option)

E.g.: aspirin
E.g.: aspirin

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Closed system

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

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Closed system

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class comprises functional words such as
articles, demonstratives, pronouns
prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections

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Closed system
Features:

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

unextendable number of members


reciprocally exclusive reciprocally defining unstressed in spoken language

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Closed system comprises notional/ lexical words
such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
adverbs

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

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Features: Closed system

Parts of speech
Parts of speech Open class

extendable number of members


combinability having certain syntactic functions

stressed words in spoken language

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of a sentence
Predicate Operator

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of a sentence
What is being discussed theme. everyday.

Predicate

Operator

E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of speech
Predicate Operator

What is being said about the subject rheme. E.g.: Her parents visit her sick uncle everyday.

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Parts of a sentence
Parts of speech

What helps to change a sentence into: Predicate Subject - interrogative E.g.: Do her parents visit her everyday? - negative E.g.: Her parents do not visit her everyday. - emphatic E.g.: Her parents do visit her everyday.

Operator

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Subject

Parts of a sentence
Parts of speech
Predicate
Lexical verbs

Operator

include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am a student and I have a part time job. include BE & HAVE E.g.: I am cooking. include will, shall, should, can, might, etc. E.g.: I can cook. Primary

Auxiliaries Modal

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence
+ Cs (1)

Intensive

+ A (obli) (2)

Extensive

intransitive (3) transitive

mono-transitive (4)

di-transitive (5)
complex-transitive (6,7)

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Sentence elements Subject Verb

Parts of a sentence
He is lovely. He is out of the office. He is crying. He broke the vase. SVCs (1) intensive SVA (obli) (2) SV (3) SVO (4) SVOO (5) SVOCo (6) SVOA (obli) (7) intransitive transitive extensive

Object Complement Adverbial

He sent me an e-mail. He found the play boring. He put the vase on the table.

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

Stative

Not progressive form

E.g.: The food he cooked tasted very good.


Dynamic
Progressive form

E.g.: She is tasting the food hes cooked.

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement Adverbial

Parts of a sentence

direct (Od) indirect (Oi)


E.g.: He sent me (Oi) a postcard (Od).

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Sentence elements Subject Verb Object Complement

Parts of a sentence

E.g.: His brother who is a teacher (Cs)

considers me his best friend (Co).

Subject Complement (Cs) Object Complement (Co)

Adverbial

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Sentence elements Subject Verb

Parts of a sentence

E.g.: He goes fishing on Tuesday. (Aopt)

Object Complement

His birthday is on Tuesday. (A obli)

optional

Adverbial
obligatory

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase Clause Sentence

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase
Noun phrase

Clause

Sentence

E.g.: All these books are mine. E.g.: John has been looking for Jane. E.g.: Tom is a very interesting man. E.g.: He ran quite fast. E.g.: Hes lecturing on the new technology.

Verb phrase
Adjective phrase Adverb phrase Prepositional phrase

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase Clause
In terms of functions of the clause

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase Clause
SVA: John is at home In terms of functions of clause SVCs: the John is a doctor.
SVO:

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns

John has cured many serious patients. prescription.

SVOO: He gives his patients the same SVOA: He put the prescription in a secret file. SVOCo: He calls his patients big fish. SV: Hes going out

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase Clause
In terms of functions of the clause

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns

Finite clause E.g.: He took her out of the blue. Non-finite clause E.g.: Coming to the town, he visited his parents. Verbless clause E.g.: If possible, come to see us.

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase Clause
In terms of functions of the clause

Sentence
In terms of kinds of verb phrases

In terms of Clauses elements & verb patterns Subordinate Superodianate

E.g.: She said that you hit her first. subordinate superordinate

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Types of phrases, clauses, sentences


Syntax
Phrase Clause Sentence
Simple

E.g.: All these books are mine. E.g.: He was watching T.V and she was cooking. E.g.: He didnt want to talk to whoever he met in the London workshop. E.g.: Having seldom talked anyone before, the child simply wide opened his beautiful eyes and looked at the stranger.

Compound
Complex Complex compound