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W.

Sautter 2007

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AMPS

Ammeters measure current in amperes and are always wired in series in the circuit.

volts

Voltmeters measure potential in volts and are always wired in parallel in the circuit.

battery wiring voltmeter ammeter

junction terminal

AC generator Variable resistance Variable capacitor

resistance
capacitor

ELECTRONS INTO LOAD

LOAD (RESISTANCE) [ENERGY OUT]

ELECTRONS OUT OF LOAD

CONDUCTOR CONDUCTOR

ELECTRONS OUT OF SOURCE

ELECTRON PUMP (SOURCE VOLTAGE) [ENERGY IN]

ELECTRONS BACK TO SOURCE

HIGHER ENERGY ELECTRONS

LOWER ENERGY ELECTRONS

Potential In volts (joules / coul) Drop across a resistance

Current In amperes (coul / second) Current passing Through the resistor

Resistance In ohms (volts / amp)

volts
current Electrons have More Energy

Battery
Electrons get An energy boost

current Electrons have Less Energy

volts
Resistor Electrons have Less Energy Energy is lost In the resistor current Electrons have More Energy

There are three generally types of electrical circuits: (1) Series circuits in which the current created by the voltage source passes through each circuit component in succession.

R2 A1

A2

R3 R1

Arrows show Current path Through each component

(2) Parallel circuits in which the current created by the voltage source branches with some passing through one component and while the rest of the current passes through other components. R1 A1 Arrows show Current path Through each component

R2

A2

R3 R4

A3 Junction or Branching points A4

P A R A L L E L

R1

A1

R2

A2

(3) Series Parallel circuits or combination circuits which contain series segments and parallel segments.

R3

A3

R4
A4 SERIES

Arrows show Current path Through each component

All electrical circuit analysis requires the use of two fundamental laws called Kirchhoffs Laws

FIRST LAW All current entering a junction point must equal all current leaving that junction point
Current Leaving ( I3 )

Current Leaving ( I2 )

Junction point Current Entering ( I1 )

I1 = I2 + I3

SECOND LAW Around any complete loop, the sum of the voltage rises must equal the sum of voltage drops
Resistance 1 (voltage drop 1) Resistance 2 (voltage drop 2)
Current flow

Resistance 3 (voltage drop 3)

Complete loop
+ Battery (voltage rise) -

V(Battery) = V1 + V2 + V3

V2 R2

Loop #2 A2

Loop #3
V1 Complete current Paths in a circuit

R1
Loop #1 EMF +

A1

At

Kirchhoffs Laws Around a loop V rises = V drops A loop is a completed Path for current flow

Battery

When using Kirchhoffs laws we apply the principles of conventional current flow. When current leaves the positive (+) terminal of a voltage source and enters the negative (-) terminal a voltage rise occurs across the source. If the current enters the positive and exits the negative a of a voltage source a voltage drop occurs across the source.

When tracing a current loop, if the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are the same, a voltage drop occurs across a resistance. If the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are opposite, a voltage rise occurs across the the resistance.

When using Kirchhoffs laws we apply the principles of conventional current flow. When current leaves the positive (+) terminal of a voltage source and enters the negative (-) terminal a voltage rise occurs across the source.

If the current enters the positive and exits the negative a of a voltage source a voltage drop occurs across the source.
Current flow

V=-6v

Battery ( 6 volts)
Current flow

V=+6v

When tracing a current loop, if the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are the same, a voltage drop occurs across a resistance. If the assumed direction of the current and the loop direction are opposite, a voltage rise occurs across the the resistance.

Loop direction

Assumed Current flow

V=-6v A voltage drop

resistor V=+6v A voltage rise


Loop direction Assumed Current flow

In a series circuit: (1) The total resistance of the circuit is the sum of the resistance values in the circuit. Series Resistance Rt = R1 + R2 + .

(2) The sum of all voltage drops across the resistors in the circuit equals the voltage rise of the source.
EMF = V1 + V2 + V3 + Vi The through each resistance is the same.

I TOTAL = I1 = I2 = I3 = Ii

Voltmeters In parallel
Ammeters In series V2 R2 A1 R3 V1 R1 Ri R = Resistance In ohms EMF A2

Series Resistance Rt = R1 + R2 + . EMF = V1 + V2 + V3 + Vi

V3

Ammeters read The same everywhere In the circuit A1 = A2

In a parallel circuit: (1) The reciprocal of the total resistance of the circuit is the sum of the reciprocals of the resistance values in the circuit. Parallel Resistance 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 .

(2) The sum of the voltage drops across the resistors in a branch of the circuit equals the voltage rise of the source.
V source= V1 = V2 = V3 = Vi (3) All current entering a junction = all current leaving the junction

I TOTAL = I1 + I2 + I3 + Ii

Voltmeters In parallel

V1
R1 V2 R2 A2 Parallel Resistance 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 . A3 Kirchhoffs Laws (1) All current entering A junction = all current Leaving the junction (2) Around a loop V rises = V drops A1 Ammeters In series

Junction points

V3 R3

EMF A4 R = Resistance In ohms Battery

P A R A L L E L

V1
R1 V2 R2 V3 R3 A3 A2 A1

Parallel Resistance 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 . Series Resistance Rt = R1 + R2 + .


Kirchhoffs Laws (1) All current entering A junction = all current Leaving the junction (2) Around a loop V rises = V drops

V4

R4
Ri

EMF A4

SERIES

Integrated circuits

resistors

capacitors