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Experiment 37.

Determining the standard enthalpy change of formation of a metal carbonate


Experiment Video
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Objective
To determine the standard enthalpy change of formation of calcium carbonate.

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Apparatus and Chemicals

Each group will need: Safety spectacles Electronic balance Thermometer (with a reinforced bulb) (10C to 110C) Beaker (250 cm3) Forceps Spatula Expanded polystyrene cup Polystyrene lid with a hole Weighing bottle (Cont)
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Apparatus and Chemicals

Measuring cylinder (100 cm3) Hydrochloric acid (1.0 M, 200 cm3) Calcium granules (1 g) Calcium carbonate granules or powder (3 g)

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Safety precautions 1. Do not touch calcium with bare hands. It may cause burns. 2. Use calcium granules, but not calcium powder, otherwise the reaction would be too vigorous.
3. Handle acid with care. In case any acid gets into your eyes, report to your teacher immediately, and flush your eyes under running water for at least 3 minutes. If any acid gets onto your skin, wash the affected area with plenty of water.

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Safety precautions

Calcium granules

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Procedure

Determining the standard enthalpy change of formation of a metal carbonate


A. Reaction of calcium with dilute hydrochloric acid

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Procedure 1. (a) Weigh out approximately 1 g of calcium granules in a weighing bottle, M1.
(b) Record the mass in Table 37.1. Note Remember to press the Tare button of the electronic balance to set the reading to zero before use.

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Procedure 2. (a) Using a measuring cylinder, measure 100 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (Figure 37.1a).
100 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid

measuring cylinder

Figure 37.1a
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Procedure
(b) Pour the acid into an expanded polystyrene cup (Figure 37.1b).

measuring cylinder

expanded polystyrene cup

100 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid Figure 37.1b

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Procedure (c) Put the cup into a beaker (Figure 37.1c).


thermometer

1.0 M hydrochloric acid beaker Figure 37.1c (d) Record the temperature of the acid, T1, in Table 37.1.
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Procedure 3. (a) Quickly add the weighed calcium granules to the acid.
(b) Quickly cover the cup with a lid. Caution Do not touch calcium with bare hands. It may cause burns.

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Procedure (c) Insert a thermometer into the solution through the hole in the lid (Figure 37.2).
thermometer expanded polystyrene cup calcium granules lid 1.0 M hydrochloric acid beaker

Figure 37.2
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Procedure (d) Stir the contents gently. (e) Record the maximum temperature reached by the solution, T2, in Table 37.1. 4. (a) Re-weigh the weighing bottle with calcium granules residue, M2.
(b) Record the mass in Table 37.1.

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Procedure Total mass of weighing bottle and calcium granules before addition, M1 (g) Total mass of weighing bottle and calcium granules residue after addition, M2 (g) Mass of calcium granules added for reaction, M1 M2 (g) Initial temperature of the solution, T1 (C) Final temperature of the solution, T2 (C) Temperature change, T2 T1 (C)
Table 37.1
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4.05 3.06 0.99 26.2 50.7

+24.5

Procedure

Determining the standard enthalpy change of formation of a metal carbonate


B. Reaction of calcium carbonate with dilute hydrochloric acid

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Procedure 5. (a) Weigh out approximately 3 g of calcium carbonate in a weighing bottle, M3.
(b) Record the mass in Table 37.2. Note Remember to press the Tare button of the electronic balance to set the reading to zero before use.

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Procedure 6. (a) Using a measuring cylinder, measure 100 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (Figure 37.3a). 100 cm3 of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid

measuring cylinder

Figure 37.3a
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Procedure
(b) Pour the acid into an expanded polystyrene cup (Figure 37.3b). measuring cylinder

expanded polystyrene cup

1.0 M hydrochloric acid

Figure 37.3b
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Procedure (c) Put the cup into a beaker (Figure 37.3c).


thermometer

1.0 M hydrochloric acid beaker

Figure 37.3c (d) Record the temperature of the acid, T3, in Table 37.2.
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Procedure 7. (a) Quickly add the weighed calcium carbonate to the acid. (b) Quickly cover the cup with a lid. (c) Insert a thermometer into the solution through the hole in the lid (Figure 37.4).
thermometer expanded polystyrene cup lid 1.0 M hydrochloric acid beaker
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calcium carbonate
Experiment 37.1 Solution

Figure 37.4

Procedure (d) Stir the contents gently. (e) Record the maximum temperature reached by the solution, T4, in Table 37.2. 8. (a) Re-weigh the weighing bottle with calcium carbonate residue, M4.
(b) Record the mass in Table 37.2.

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Procedure Total mass of weighing bottle and calcium carbonate before addition, M3 (g) Total mass of weighing bottle and calcium carbonate residue after addition, M4 (g) Mass of calcium carbonate added for reaction, M3 M4 (g) Initial temperature of the solution, T3 (C) Final temperature of the solution, T4 (C) Temperature change, T4 T3 (C) Table 37.2
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6.07

3.05 3.02 26.2


28.5 +2.3

Calculations 9. (a) Write a chemical equation (Equation 1) for the reaction between calcium and dilute hydrochloric acid. Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2(g)

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Calculations (b) Calculate the heat evolved when calcium used in part A reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Note Assume that the specific heat capacity and density of the solution are the same as those of water i.e. 4.2 J g1 K1 and 1.0 g cm3 respectively.

Heat evolved = m c T = 100 cm3 1.0 g cm3 4.2 J g1 K1 24.5 K = 10290 J

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Calculations
(c) Hence, calculate the heat evolved when 1 mole of calcium reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid. 0.99 g Number of moles of calcium used = 40.1 g mol1

= 0.0247 mol
From the equation, the mole ratio of Ca : HCl = 1:2

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Calculations Number of moles of dilute hydrochloric acid used 100 3 dm3 = 1.0 mol dm 1000 = 0.1 mol HCl is in excess. Heat evolved when 1 mole of calcium reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid 10290 J = 0.0247 mol = 416599 J mol1 = 416.6 kJ mol1
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Calculations 10. (a) Write a chemical equation (Equation 2) for the reaction between calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid.
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

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Calculations (b) Calculate the heat evolved when calcium carbonate used in part B reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Note Assume that the specific heat capacity and density of the solution are the same as those of water i.e. 4.2 J g1 K1 and 1.0 g cm3 respectively.

Heat evolved = m c T = 100 cm3 1.0 g cm3 4.2 J g1 K1 2.3 K

= 966 J

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Calculations (c) Hence, calculate the heat evolved when 1 mole of calcium carbonate reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid. Number of moles of calcium carbonate used 3.02 g = (40.1 + 12.0 + 16.0 3) g mol1
= 0.030 mol From the equation, the mole ratio of CaCO3 : HCl 1:2 =

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Calculations Number of moles of dilute hydrochloric acid used 100 3 = 1.0 mol dm dm3 1000 = 0.1 mol HCl is in excess.
Heat evolved when 1 mole of calcium carbonate reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid 966 J = 0.030 mol = 32200 J mol1 = 32.2 kJ mol1
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Calculations 11. (a) Write an equation (Equation 3) for the formation of calcium carbonate from its elements.

3 Ca(s) + C(s) + O2(g) CaCO3(s) 2


(b) Draw an enthalpy change cycle linking Equations 1, 2 and 3 together. (Hint: Some other equations are needed to complete the cycle.)

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Calculations
H f [CaCO3(s)] 3 Ca(s) + C(s) + O2(g) CaCO3(s) 2

H 1

2HCl(aq)

H 2

2HCl(aq)

3 CaCl2(aq) + H2(g) + C(s) + O2(g) 2


H 3

CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) H 4

CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + C(s) + O2(g)

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Calculations (c) Apart from your experimental results in parts A and B, what other information is needed to calculate the standard enthalpy change of formation of calcium carbonate? Look up these necessary data. The following information is needed to be found for calculating standard enthalpy change of formation of calcium carbonate:
1. Standard enthalpy change of formation of water = 285.8 kJ mol1, i.e. H3 2. Standard enthalpy change of formation of carbon dioxide = 393.5 kJ mol1, i.e. H4
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Calculations 12. By using Hesss Law, calculate the standard enthalpy change of formation of calcium carbonate. (Assuming that all reactions were carried out under standard conditions.) H f [CaCO3(s)] =H 1 + H 3 + H 4 H 2
= (416.6) + (285.8) + (393.5) (32.2) kJ mol1 = 1063.7 kJ mol1

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Summary 13. The standard enthalpy change of calcium carbonate is 1063.7 ____________ kJ mol1.

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Question
14. Explain why the method used in this experiment is not appropriate for metals that are less reactive than magnesium. For those metals less reactive than magnesium, their reaction towards dilute hydrochloric acid will proceed more slowly. The error due to heat loss to the surroundings will be larger. The heat evolved in the reaction will thus be underestimated.

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