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Foundations of Individual Behavior (Personality)

Dr. Ashok Kumar Professor (HR & OB) IIM, Indore

What is Personality The sum total of unique and stable ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others and environment

Personality?
.set of traits and behaviors that characterizes an individual .an organized,consistent pattern of perception of the I,around which the individual interacts and has experiences ..the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others Traits Types

Determinants of Personality

Heredity Environment

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB


1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7.

Ones core self evaluation Machiavellianism Narcissism Self-monitoring Propensity of risk taking The type A personality Proactive

Core-self Evaluation (Self-efficacy)

Degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves, whether they see themselves capable and effective, and whether they feel they are in control of their environment or powerless over their environment.

Personality Characteristics in Organizations


Self-Efficacy beliefs and expectations about ones ability to accomplish a specific task effectively
Sources of self-efficacy Prior experiences and prior success Behavior models (observing success) Persuasion Assessment of current physical and emotional capabilities

Example of self-efficacy
Self- esteem Locus of control

Personality Characteristics in Organizations


Self-Esteem
Feelings of Self Worth

Success tends to increase self-esteem

Failure tends to decrease self-esteem

Personality Characteristics in Organizations


Locus of Control
Internal
I control what happens to me!

External
People and circumstances control my fate!

Machiavellianism
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

Narcissism
The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.

Self-Monitoring
A Personality traits that measures an individual ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external situational factors

Personality Characteristics in Organizations


Self-Monitoring
Behavior based on cues
Low self monitors High self monitors act from internal states flexible: adjust rather than from behavior according to situational cues the situation and the show consistency behavior of others less likely to respond to can appear work group norms or unpredictable and supervisory feedback inconsistent

Who Is Most Likely to . . .


Low self monitors High self monitors
Accomplish tasks, meet others expectations, seek out central positions in social networks

Get promoted

Change employers
Self-promote

Make a job-related geographic move


Demonstrate higher levels of managerial self-awareness; base behavior on others cues and the situation

Risk Taking
Ability to take decision with given information with intention to have some advantage.

Type A personality
Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people

Proactive Personality
People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs

Personality Theories
Trait Theory understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach describes personality as a composite of an individuals psychological processes

Personality Traits
Enduring relatively stable set of characteristics that describes an individual behaviour

Big Five Personality Traits


Gregarious, assertive, Extraversion sociable Cooperative, warm, Agreeableness agreeable Hardworking, organized, Conscientiousness dependable Calm, self-confident, Emotional stability cool Openness to Creative, curious, experience cultured

Four Measures of Personality


Projective Test elicits an individuals response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures personality assessments that involve observing an individuals behavior in a controlled situation

Four Measures of Personality


Self-Report Questionnaire assessment involving an individuals responses to questions
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument measuring Jungs theory of individual differences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences by analyzing the combinations of preferences

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(Contd.)

Human similarities/differences understood by combining preferences Ways of doing things Extraversion or introversion No preferences better than others Understand, celebrate, and appreciate differences

MBTI Preferences
Preferences Extraversion Introversion Sensing Thinking Judging Represents

How one re-energizes How one gathers Intuiting information How one makes Feeling decisions Perceiving How one orients to the outer world

MBTI Scales
ISTJ
Introverts

ISFJ

INFJ

INTJ

ISTP
ESTP
Extraverts

ISFP
ESFP ESFJ

INFP
ENFP ENFJ

INTP
ENTP ENTJ

ESTJ

Sensing Types

Intuitive Types

Uses of MBTI

Identify learning and teaching styles Decide on careers (Example: many managers are ESTJs) Determine decision-making style Determine management style Build teams

Personality and Vocational Choice: Holland Type


Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional