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Chapter 14

Questionnaires and Instruments

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Learning Objectives
Understand the link forged between the management dilemma and the communication instrument by the management-research question hierarchy Understand the influence of the communication method on instrument design Understand the three general classes of information and what each contributes to the instrument
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Learning Objectives
Understand the influence of question content, question wording, response strategy, and preliminary analysis planning on question construction Understand each of the numerous question design issues influencing instrument quality, reliability, and validity Understand the sources for measurement questions Understand the importance of pretesting questions and instruments
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Exhibit 14-1 Overall Flowchart for Instrument Design

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Exhibit 14-2 Phase 1

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Strategic Concerns in Instrument Design

What type of scale is needed?

What communication approach will be used?

Should the questions be structured?

Should the questioning be disguised?


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Technology Affects Questionnaire Development


Write questionnaires more quickly Create visually driven instruments Eliminate manual data entry Save time in data analysis

WebSurveyor used to write an instrument.


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Disguising Study Objectives

Reluctantly shared, Conscious-level information Situations where disguise is unnecessary Knowable, Limited-consciouslevel information

Willingly shared, Conscious-level information

Subconscious-level information
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Exhibit 14-3 Dummy Table for American Eating Habits


Use of Convenience Foods

_______________________________________________
Age
18-24 25-34 35-44 55-64 65+

Always Use

Use Frequently

Use Sometimes

Rarely Use

Never Use

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Exhibit 14-4 Phase 2

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Question Categories and Structure

Administrative

Classification

Target

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Question Content
Should this question be asked?
Is the question of proper scope and coverage? Can the participant adequately answer this question as asked?

Will the participant willingly answer this question as asked?

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Question Wording
Shared vocabulary

Adequate alternatives

Single meaning

Criteria

Personalized

Misleading assumptions

Biased
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Response Strategy
Objectives of the study Participants motivation to share Participants level of information

Factors

Ease and clarity with which participant communicates

Degree to which participants have thought through topic


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Free-Response Strategy
What factors influenced your enrollment in MBA at Gardi Vidyapith? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

Researchers try to reduce the number of these questions as they are difficult to interpret and are costly to analyze.
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Dichotomous Response Strategy

Did you attend the A Day at College program at Gardi Vidyapith?

Yes No

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Multiple Choice Response Strategy

Which one of the following factors was most influential in your decision to select Gardi Vidyapith?

Good academic standing Specific program of study desired Enjoyable campus life Many friends from home High quality of faculty

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Checklist Response Strategy


Which of the following factors influenced your decision to enroll in Gardi Vidyapith? Check all that apply. Tuition cost Specific program of study desired Parents preferences Opinion of brother or sister Many friends from home attend High quality of faculty

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Rating Response Strategy


Strongly influential Somewhat influential Not at all influential

Good academic reputation Enjoyable campus life Many friends High quality faculty

Semester calendar

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Ranking
Please rank-order your top three factors From the following list based on their Influence in encouraging you to apply to Gardi Vidyapith. Use 1 to indicate the most encouraging factor, 2 the next most encouraging factor, etc. _____ Opportunity to play collegiate sports _____ Closeness to home _____ Enjoyable campus life _____ Good academic reputation _____ High quality of faculty
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Exhibit 14-7 Characteristics of Response Strategies


Characteristic Type of Scale Dichotomous Nominal Multiple Choice Nominal, ordinal, or ratio 3 to 10 Checklist Nominal Rating Ordinal or interval 3 to 7 Rank Ordering Ordinal Free Response Nominal or ratio

Usual Number of Answer Alternatives Provided Desired Number of Participant Answers Used to Provide...

10 or fewer

10 or fewer

None

10 or fewer

1 per item

7 or fewer

Classification

Classification, order, or specific numerical estimate

Classification

Order or distance

Order

Classification (of idea), order, or specific numerical estimate

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Exhibit 14-6 Internet Survey Response Options

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Exhibit 14-6 continued

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Exhibit 14-6 continued

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Exhibit 14-8 Sources of Questions


Handbook of Marketing Scales The Gallup Poll Cumulative Index Measures of Personality and Social-Psychological Attitudes Measures of Political Attitudes Index to International Public Opinion Sourcebook of Harris National Surveys Marketing Scales Handbook American Social Attitudes Data Sourcebook

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Exhibit 14-8 Web Sources of Questions


Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research iPoll Online Survey Research/ Public Opinion Centers Survey Research Library, Florida State University The Odum Institute
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Exhibit 14-9 Phase 3


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Guidelines for Question Sequencing

Interesting topics early Classification questions later Sensitive questions later Simple items early Transition between topics
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Illustrating the Funnel Approach


How do you think this country is getting along in its relations with other countries? How do you think we are doing in our relations with Iran? Do you think we ought to be dealing with Iran differently than we are now? (If yes) What should we be doing differently? Some people say we should get tougher with Iran and others think we are too tough as it is; how do you feel about it?
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Branching Question

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Exhibit 14-10 Components of Questionnaire

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Overcoming Instrument Problems

Build rapport Redesign question process Explore alternatives Use other methods Pretest
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Key Terms
Administrative question Branched question Buffer question Checklist Classification question Dichotomous question Disguised question Double-barreled question Free-response question Interview schedule Leading question Multiple-choice question

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Key Terms
Pretesting Primacy effect Ranking question Rating question Recency effort Screen question Structured response Target question Structured Unstructured Unstructured response

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