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Data Collection MethodologyPrimary Data Collection Methods

Observation Method
Most commonly used

method Advantages:
Subjective bias is

eliminated Information obtained relates to current happenings Demands less of active cooperation of respondents

Observation Method
Disadvantages: It is an expensive method Limited information provided Rare accessibility for direct observation

Interview Method
Presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses
Interview Method

Personal Interviews

Telephone Interviews


Personal Interview

More information of greater

depth is obtained Personal information can be obtained easily Samples can be controlled more effectively Interviewers may secure most spontaneous reactions

Possibility of bias of interviewer

and respondent Certain respondents may not be easily approachable This method is relatively more time- consuming Presence of interviewer may over stimulate respondents

Advantages: More flexible, faster and cheaper in comparison to other methods There is high rate of response No field staff is required Disadvantages: Time constraints for respondents Not suitable for intensive surveys Questions have to be short and to the point

Collection of Data through Questionnaires


Technique of Data Collection in which each person is asked to respond to the same set of questions in a predetermined order
When to use Questionnaires For explanatory or descriptive

research To collect responses from a large

Advantages Extensive geographical

coverage with minimum cost Respondents have adequate time to give answers Results can be more dependable and reliable Large sample size, thus more reliable
Disadvantages Low rate of return of duly filled in

questionnaires Can be used only with educated and co-operating respondents Inflexibility in amending questionnaires once sent It is likely to be the slowest Possibility of ambiguous replies

Main Aspects of a questionnaire

General Form
Structured or Unstructured Closed ended (yes or no) Open ended (inviting free response)

Question Sequence
Should begin with questions that arouse interest Followed by more specific questions

Question formulation and wording

Should be easily understood Should be simple Should be concrete (get the most info by using least


Examples of Question types

Open questions

Eg: Please list up to three things you like about your college 1 2 3

List questions

Eg: What is your religion (please tick the appropriate box)

Buddhist Christian Hindu Jewish

Sikh Other

Category questions

Interviewer : listens to the respondents answer and tick as appropriate

Eg: How often do you bunk the college ?
Once a week Less than fortnightly to once a month 2 or more times a week

Less than once a week to fortnightly

Less often

Ranking questions

Eg: Please number each of the factors listed below in order of importance to you in choosing a new car. Number the most important 1, the next 2 and so on. Factor Importance Carbon dioxide emissions [ ] Boot size [ ] Depreciation [ ] Price [ ]

Rating questions

Eg : For the following statement please tick the box that matches your view most closely Agree Tend to agree Tend to disagree Disagree I feel employees Views have Influenced the Decisions taken By management

Essentials of a good Questionnaire

Short and Simple Sequence should be easy to difficult Personal and Intimate questions should be left

to the end Technical terms capable of different interpretations should be avoided Open ended questions should be avoided to the extent possible

This method is similar to

questionnaire It is filled in by the enumerators appointed for this purpose They explain the objectives and remove difficulties of respondents Data collected through this method lead to fairly reliable results It is time consuming method

Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules

It is sent through mail

It is filled out by

without further assistance Data Collection is relatively cheap No clarity about respondents This method is likely to be slow Respondents need to be

enumerators and provide assistance Data collection is more expensive Identity of respondents is known Information is collected well in time Data can be collected

Other Methods of Data Collection

Warranty cards Distributor audits Pantry audits Consumer Panels
Transitory Consumer Panel
Continuing Consumer Panel

Use of mechanical devices

Different data capture methods

Thank You

Presented by... Group No. 5 Pradeep Deshmukh Naveen Gurnani Shreya Shetty Shashank Tambatkar Dharvin Vasani