Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

COORDINATION AND RESPONSE

In this subtopic, you should be able to: -State why organisms have to be sensitive to changes in the external & internal environment. -Clarify through examples the meaning of stimulus and response. -State the main components & pathways involved in detecting and responding to changes in the external & internal environment. -Clarify through examples the meaning of coordination.

3.1 Coordination & Response


Every living organisms experiences changes in its internal & external environment all the time. WHY?? They have the ability to these changes and respond to them appropriately; SENSITIVITY. The changes which cause responses in our bodies = STIMULI. The stimuli is detected through specialized sensory cells = RECEPTORS. The way an organism reacts after detecting a stimulus = RESPONSE.

The part of the body that makes responses = EFFECTOR. But, why, do you think that living organisms need to respond to stimuli??
To ensure survival. To fight against infection. For normal functioning of enzymes and body cells.

STIMULUS & RESPONSE


COORDINATION

The process by which the stimuli are detected, eventually results in appropriate responses.

RESPONSE

After detecting a stimulus, receptor will send out a signal = NERVE IMPULSE, in the form of electric charges. Coordination ensures that the activities of an organism function as an integrated whole. COORDINATION = the regulation and control of activities of various parts of body so that the organism can function as an entity.

Types of External Receptors


Stimulus Light Sound Chemical Touch Types of receptors Photoreceptor Mechanoreceptor Chemoreceptor Mechanoreceptor Location of receptors Eyes Ears Nose and tongue Skin

Temperature Pain Gravity

Thermoreceptor Pain receptor Mechanoreceptor

Skin Skin Ears

Types of Internal Receptors


Stimulus
Body temperature Osmotic concentration of blood pH of blood (CO2 content) Blood sugar Blood pressure

Types of receptors
Thermoreceptor Osmoreceptor Chemoreceptor

Location of receptors
In the hypothalamus In the hypothalamus In the medulla oblongata, wall of aorta & carotid artery In the pancreas In the wall of heart & certain arteries

Chemoreceptor Baroreceptor

The Main Component


Receptors Afferent (sensory) neurons Integrating centre - central nervous system.
Receives information from various receptors. Integration (interpretation of information) takes place. Brain & spinal cord.

Efferent (motor) neurons Effectors (muscles cells, glands)


Carry out the bodys responses to stimuli.

The Main Pathways


Afferent pathway
Stimulus receptor integrating centre Through afferent neurons

Efferent pathway
Integrating centre effectors Through efferent neurons Effectors will then proceed to response.

External Pathway

Internal Pathway

The regulation of changes in the internal environment is called HOMEOSTASIS, which involves negative feedback mechanisms. When there is a change in the internal environment, body will respond by producing a corrective mechanism in the opposite direction.

Exercise!!!
Science process skills
Page 37 (no.1 & 2)

Text book
Checkpoint 3.1

Conclusion
- Why organisms have to be sensitive to changes in the external & internal environment? - Gives examples from the meaning of stimulus and response. - What are the main components & pathways involved in detecting and responding to changes in the external & internal environment? - Gives example from the meaning of coordination.