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ME2305 APPLIED HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS

UNIT I FLUID POWER SYSTEM AND FUNDAMENTALS

SYLLABUS
Introduction to fluid power, Advantages of fluid power, Application of fluid power system. Types of fluid power systems, Properties of hydraulic fluids General types of fluids Fluid power symbols. Basics of Hydraulics-Applications of Pascal's LawLaminar and Turbulent flow Reynolds number Darcys equation Losses in pipe, valves and fittings.

INTRODUCTION
All machines require some type of power source and a way of transmitting this power to the point of operation. The three methods of transmitting power are: Mechanical Electrical Fluid Hydraulic Pneumatic Fluid power is the method of using pressurized fluid to transmit energy. Liquid or Gas is referred to as a fluid. Accordingly, there are two branches of fluid power; Pneumatics, and Hydraulics.
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Properties of Fluids
A fluid is defined as any matter that flows when force is applied. Liquids like water or silver are kinds of fluid.

Forces in fluids
Forces in fluids are more complicated than forces in solids because fluids can change shape.

Pressure A force applied to a fluid creates pressure. Pressure acts in all directions, not just the direction of the applied force.

Unit of pressure
The S.I unit of pressure is the Pascal. One pascal (unit of force ) is one newton of force per square meter of area (N/M2)

What is fluid power?


A fluid is a substance which is capable of flowing. Fluid can be liquid or gas. Definition: Fluid power may be defined as the technology that deals with the generation, control, and transmission of power using pressurized fluids. Fluid power = hydraulic system+ Pneumatic system Hydraulics uses pressurized liquid (water, petroleum oils and synthetic oils) as fluid medium. Pneumatics uses compressed air or other neutral gases.
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Fluid Power Definitions


Fluid Power The use of a fluid to transmit power from one location to another. Hydraulics The use of a liquid flowing under pressure to transmit power from one location to another. Pneumatics The use of a gas flowing under pressure to transmit power from one location to another.
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Why Use Fluid Power?


Multiplication & variation of force Easy, accurate control One power source controls many operations High power / low weight ratio Low speed torque Constant force and torque Safe in hazardous environments

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Basic Fluid Power Components

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Work & Power


Work is done (or energy is transferred) when an object is moved against a force, and is defined as: Work = force (N) x distance moved (m) ; unit Nm=Joule Power is the rate at which work is performed: Power = work (J)/time (s) ; unit J/s=Watt

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Fluid Power Principles


Horsepower Term used to give relative meaning for measuring power Unit measurement of energy

Hydraulic horsepower is expressed as:

flow(gpm)pressure(psi) Horsepower = 1714(constant)

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Fluid Power Principles


Torque Twisting force force x distance Measured in foot-pounds T= F (N) x d (m); unit Nm= Joule

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The Advantages
Multiplication and variation of force Easy, accurate control Multi-function control High horsepower, low weight Low speed torque Constant force or torque Safety in hazardous environments Established standards and engineering

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Applications of Fluid power Engineering.


1. Manufacturing industries 2. Automobile industry 3. Agriculture industry 4. Naval industry 5. Aviation and Aerospace industry 6. Mechatronics field 7. Material handling field 8. Construction field 9. Biomedical industries
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Fluid Power Applications


Mobile
Backhoes Graders Tractors
Truck brakes Suspensions Spreaders Highway maintenance vehicles

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Fluid Power Applications


Industrial
Metalworking equipment Controllers Automated manipulators Material handling Assembly equipment

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Fluid Power Applications


Aerospace
Landing gear Brakes Flight controls Motor controls Cargo loading equipment

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Type of fluid power system


Hydraulic power system closed loop system Pneumatic power system open loop system

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THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF FLUID POWER SYSTEM


Hydraulic System: A tank (reservoir) to hold the hydraulic oil A pump to force the oil through the system Prime mover an electric motor to drive the pump Pneumatic System: An air tank to store a given volume of compressed air A compressor to compress the air that comes directly from the atmosphere Prime mover usually an electric motor, used to drive compressor 21

THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF FLUID POWER SYSTEM


Hydraulic System: Valves to control oil direction, pressure, and flow rate An actuator to convert the pressure of oil into mechanical force or torque to do useful work Piping which carries the oil from one location to another Pneumatic System: Valves to control air direction, pressure and flow rate An actuator to convert the pressure of air into mechanical force or torque to do useful work Piping to carry the pressurized air from one location to another
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Hydraulic Fluid power systems [Fluid- Liquid]:

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Functions of Components:
Hydraulic Actuator: It is a device used to convert the fluid power into mechanical power to do useful work. Hydraulic pump: It is used to force the fluid to the rest of the hydraulic circuit from the reservoir. Valves: valves are used to control the direction, pressure and flow rate of a fluid flowing through the circuit. External Power supply (Motor): It is required to drive the pump.
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Functions of Components:
Reservoir: It is used to hold the hydraulic liquid usually hydraulic oil. Piping systems: It carries the hydraulic oil from one place to anther. Fitters: Fitters are used to clean the hydraulic oil used in that circuit. Pressure regulator: Pressure regulator regulates i.e maintains the required level of pressure in the hydraulic fluid.
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Working Principle
1. It is a closed loop type with fluid transferred from storage tank to one side of the piston and returned from the other side of the piston to the tank. 2. Fluid is drawn from the tank by a pump which produces fluid flow at the required level of pressure. 3. If the fluid pressure exceeds the required level, then the excess fluid will return back to the reservoir until the pressure regulates to the required level.

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Working Principle cont..


4. When the position of valve is changed to raiser position, the pipe pressure line is connected to port A and thus the load is raised. 5. When the position of valve is changed to lower position, the pipe pressure line is connected to port B and thus the load is raised. 6. When the valve is in centre position, the valve locks the fluid into the cylinder causing all the pump output fluid to return the tank through pressure regulator.
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Advantages
1) Large load capacity with almost high accuracy and precision. 2) Smooth movement 3) Automatic lubricating provision to reduce wear. 4) Division and distribution of hydraulic power is simpler and easier than other forms of energy. 5) Limiting and balancing of hydraulic forces are easily performed.

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Disadvantages
1) Hydraulic Elements needs to be machined to a high degree of precision. 2) Leakage of Hydraulic Oil poses problems to hydraulic operators. 3) Special treatment is needed to protect them from rust, corrosion, dirt etc 4) Hydraulic oil may pose problems if it disintegrates due to aging and chemical deterioration. 5) Hydraulic oils are messy and almost highly flammable.
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Pneumatic Fluid power systems [FluidCompressed Air]


Pneumatic system carries power by employing compressed gas generally air as a fluid for transmitting the energy from an energy .

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Functions of Components
Pneumatic actuator: It converts the fluid power into mechanical power to do useful work. Compressor: It is used to compress the fresh air drawn from the atmosphere. Storage reservoir: It is used to store a given volume of compressed air.

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Functions of Components cont..


Valves: It is used to control the direction, flow rate and pressure of compressed air. External Power supply (Motor): It is used to drive the compressor. Piping system: It carries the pressurized air from one location to another.

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Working Principle:
1. It is a open loop type as the air after the work done is
simply vented to the atmosphere. 2. Air is drawn from the atmosphere through air filter and raised to required pressure by an air compressor. 3. As the pressure rises, the temperature also rises. 4. Then the treated pressurized air needs to get stored to maintain the pressure. With the storage reservoir, a pressure switch is fitted to start and stop the electric motor when pressure falls and reached the required level, respectively. 5. The three position change over control valve delivering air into the cylinder operates in a similar any to its hydraulic circuit.
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Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages: 1) Low inertia effect of pneumatic components due to light density of air. 2) Systems is light in weight. 3) Comparatively easy operations of valves. 4) Power losses and leakages are less in pneumatic systems. 5) Low Cost. Disadvantages: 1) Suitable only for light loads or small loads. 2) Availability of the assembly components is doubtful.

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Physical Properties of Hydraulic Fluids Functions of a Fluid in any Fluid Power System
1. To transmit power (Basic purpose) 2. To lubricate moving parts; 3. To seal gaps and clearances between mating components 4. To dissipate heat generated by internal friction. 5. To prevent rust and Corrosion. 6. To remove unwanted and harmful impurities from the system.

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Classification of Fluids
Fluids: Liquids , gases and vapours Liquid: liquid posses definite mass and volume but no definite shape. Gases: which has definite mass, but no definite volume and shape. Vapour: whose temperature and pressure is very near to the liquid state. (Example: steam)

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Fluid power principle


Pascals Law Relationship between force, pressure, and area
force = pressure area force pressure = area force area = pressure
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Fluid Power Symbols


Based on International Organisation for Standardisation .(ISO) Also all the symbols conform to American National Standards Institute (ANSI) The various fluid power symbols used in fluid power circuit are
Pumps and motor Cylinders Directional control valves Pressure valves Flow control valves Non-return valves Operation/actuation methods Energy transmission Measuring devices Coupling
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Symbols used in energy conversion and preparation


PUMPS AND MOTORS Energy producing devices.

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Graphic symbols used for pumps and motors

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CYLINDER (Actuators)

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =galbRdXj8lU

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Directional control valves symbol development

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DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES

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PRESSURE VALVES

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FLOW CONTROL VALVES


Used to control the flow rate and to control the actuator speed.

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NON-RETURN VALVES

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Methods of Operation / Actuation

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Methods of actuation contd..

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COMPONENTS

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FRL UNIT

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Pascals Law
Pascals law states that the pressure applied anywhere to a confined liquid is transmitted equally to every portion of the surface of the containing vessel. (Or) pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted equally in all direction.

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According to Pascals law, the pressure at piston A (P1) equals the pressure at piston B (P2) P1 = P2 Fluid pressure is measured in terms of the force exerted per unit area.

The values F1, A2 can be calculated using the following formula:


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PASCALS LAW
FORCE F1 SMALL AREA A1 PRESSURE P

P = F1

A1
F2 = P x A2

LARGE AREA FORCE F2 A2


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Comparison of Hydraulic and Pneumatic system


Hydraulic System 1. Incompressible medium used 2. Used for Heavy loads 3. Very expensive to operate and build 4. Medium is recirculated within the system 5.Hydraulic system provide a very rigid motion Pneumatic System Compressible medium used
Used for medium loads Less expensive Medium is exhausted into the atmosphere Pneumatic system behave in a springy fashion

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Working Principle

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Application of Pascal's law:


Hand operated Hydraulic Jack: Air-to-Hydraulic pressure Boosters: Vehicle braking

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Hydraulic jack

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Common examples of hydraulic systems include:


The function of a vehicle braking system is to stop or slow down a moving vehicle.

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Air-to-Hydraulic pressure Boosters

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4 Hydraulic cylinders

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Laminar flow and Turbulent flow

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Force
Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Hence, pressure is the amount of force acting over a unit area, as indicated by Pressure (P) = Force (F) / Area (A) Example of P at 100 kPa and A at 20 m, F = P x A, so F = 100 kPa x 20 m F = 2000 kN.

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Example
A lifting is to lift a load of 15kN and is to have a system pressure of 75 bar. How large does the piston surface need to be? Solution: P = F/A A = F/P = 15000N/(75x105 Pa) = 0.002 m2

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Example - 1
Find the weight of the car in N, if the area of piston A is 600 mm2, the area of piston B is 10500 mm2, and the force applied on piston A is 500 N.

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Example - 1
If the weight of the car is 10,000 N, the diameter of piston A is 10 mm, and the force applied on piston A is 250 N. Calculate the radius of piston B.

Solution:
Calculate the area of piston A, the piston shape is circular, accordingly the area will be calculated using the following formula.

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Apply Pascals law

Use Pascals law to calculate the area of piston B

Find the diameter of piston B

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Boyles Law - 1662


Gas pressure is inversely proportional to the Volume, when temperature is held constant Pressure x Volume = a constant Equation: P1V1 = P2V2 (T = constant)

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Graph of Boyles Law

Boyles Law says the pressure is inverse to the volume. Note that when the volume goes up, the pressure goes down.

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Charless Law
The volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature, when pressure is held constant.

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Gay-Lussacs Law - 1802


The pressure and Kelvin temperature of a gas are directly proportional, provided that the volume remains constant.

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The Combined Gas Law


The combined gas law expresses the relationship between pressure, volume and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.

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Fluid Power
Hydraulics Versus Pneumatics

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Pneumatic and Hydraulic Control Comparison

Pneumatic Control Is:


Clean Fast Intrinsically Safe Overload Safe Inexpensive for Individual Components

Hydraulic Control:
Is Infinitely Controllable

Produces Extremely Large Forces


Requires High Pressures Requires Heavy Duty Components

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Differences in Symbols
Symbols Reminder
Hydraulic Pump Pumps and Motors differ only by filling in the direction arrow or leaving it white. Compressor

Supply and Pilot arrows are also filled in or left white. Hydraulically Actuated and supplied 3/2 Pilot Spring Pneumatically Actuated and supplied 3/2 Pilot Spring
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Differences in Symbols
Cylinders and other actuators also differ with respect to supply and direction arrows.

Hydraulic Double Acting Cylinder

Pneumatic Double Acting Cylinder

Many symbols do not change, for example the Filter symbol.

Hydraulic Filter

Pneumatic Filter

Remember however that the physical construction is completely different.

For example, hydraulic filters can be either Suction Strainers (suction side of the pump), Pressure Filter (pressure side of the pump) or Return Filter (in the return to tank line). Each filter requires different properties.
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Differences in Symbols
Hydraulic valves have a crossover to Tank.

Pneumatic valves tend to have two Exhaust outlets to Atmosphere.

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Differences in Pressure and Force


Pneumatic Pressures and Forces
Produced at 10Bar Used at 0~6 Bar Forces up to 5000Kg

Hydraulic Pressures and Forces


Produced and used at 200~400Bar Forces up to Thousands of tonnes

Force

Force Calculator Area Pressure


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Differences in Construction
The hydraulic Power Pack contains the Pump, Tank (Reservoir), Filters and commonly a Relief Valve for protection of the system. The unit is usually local to the machine that is using it. Hydraulic pumps are usually Positive Displacement devices which means they displace all the oils they pump.

The Pneumatic Compressor installation usually includes a Dryer and Receiver. The unit is usually remote from the machine that is using it.
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Differences in Construction
Valves and Actuators

Pneumatic valves and actuators are generally of light construction as they need to deal with pressure up to a maximum of 10 Bar. The cost of these components is cheap when compared to the much more heavily constructed hydraulic components.

Hydraulic valves and actuators are much more heavily constructed than pneumatic components. This is because the components must deal with pressures up to 400 Bar+. Hydraulic actuators can be very large when compared with common pneumatic actuators. Hydraulic components are much more expensive than standard pneumatic components. A standard hydraulic DCV is in the region of hundreds of Euro, a standard application pneumatic valve would typically cost 80 tens of Euro.

Differences in Construction
Hoses, Pipes and Connectors
Hydraulic hoses and connectors are heavily constructed to hold the higher pressures. Rubber hoses are steel Reinforced (Braided) to Strengthen them.
Pipe

Fittings
Hose (Connectors)

Braid (Reinforcement) Fittings (Connectors)

Straight Coupling

Tee

Pneumatic Pipes and Fittings are of light construction. Pneumatic Pipe is made from nylon and generally connects to the fittings using Push Fit connectors.
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Differences in Application
Hydraulic systems are used where large forces are required such as in earth moving equipment, heavy cutting, Pressing and Clamping

Pneumatic systems are used for relatively light moving, Clamping and Process operations

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Simple Application Example


Hydraulic

DCV

Filter Tank
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Simple Application Example


Pneumatic

Actuator

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INTRODUCTION TO PNEUMATIC CONTROL


The word Pneuma means breath or air . Pneumatics is application of compressed air in automation. In Pneumatic control, compressed air is used as the working medium, normally at a pressure from 6 bar to 8 bar. Using Pneumatic Control, maximum force up to 50 kN can be developed. Actuation of the controls can be manual, Pneumatic or Electrical actuation. Signal medium such as compressed air at pressure of 1-2 bar can be used [Pilot operated Pneumatics] or Electrical signals [ D.C or A.C source- 24V 230V ] can be used [Electro pneumatics]
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