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PRINCIPLE OF LESSON PLANNING

Identifying the target groups


1) Beginners

2) Intermediate learners
3) Advance learners

Beginners
1) Characteristics

- Cannot even distinguish an English speech sound from the noises in the environment or the sounds of others they do not know - Have no idea what a word or phrase begins and where it ends - Have no idea of the rules of English pronunciations or grammar

Beginners Beginners
2) Suggested teaching-learning strategies (a) Length of input - Do not give more than one to three minutes worth of listening materials to process at one time

Beginners Beginners
(b) Type of input - Short basic sentence, clear pronunciation, small stack of words, no background noise. - Select words/ideas/events that can be visualized - Select the materials that are related to objects in the classroom

Beginners Beginners
- Use pictures, gestures and facial expressions. E.g: telling a simple story - Focus on specific aspect of listening. E.g: minimal pair of discrimination, distinguish between questions and statements using intonation pattern

Beginners Beginners
(c) Speed of delivery - Do not slow down tour speech too much. It can prevents them from learning the natural rhythms and phraseology of English (d) Outcome of listening - Build in a lot redundancy so that pupils can get the answers without too much difficulty or anxiety.

Intermediate Learners
1) Characteristics - Have fairly good gasp of the phonemic system of English but as most of the listening they did at the beginners level fully-scripted texts, they would still have difficulty with authentic texts.

Intermediate Learners
2) Suggested teaching-learning strategies (a) Length of input - They can listen to the listening materials for 5 to 10 minutes each time

Intermediate Learners
(b) Types of input - Include two-way communication with more than one speakers - Use Malaysian English as a major portion but simple example of the major varieties, e.g American and British English can be introduced. - semi-scripted input

Intermediate Learners
- Use a lot of redundancy when introduce non-scripted (authentic) materials to them. - Introduce them to more difficult sub- skills. E.g : Do you mind? would sound like dju mind?

Advanced Learners
1) Characteristics

- Have become very proficient in the language - Can handle incomplete text and background noise - Learns to use compensatory strategies if he fails to hear something, he tries to infer what it could have been, using information in the rest of the talk that he did manage to hear.

Advanced Learners
2) Suggested teaching-learning strategies - Use a variety of authentic texts. Select the texts that are useful for students present and future needs - Emphasis in areas where Malaysians are known to have problems. E.g: in recognizing intonational differences - Give practice in listening to all major varieties of English. E.g: British English, American English and Australian English.

Integrating the Language Skills

The Integrated Skills is

excellent to improve your English structure and grammar skills. You will focus on speaking, grammar, vocabulary, reading and writing skills in a time.

Advantages
Teachers are able to track students

progress in multiple skills at the same time.


Also, skill integration allows for growth

in all main skill areas at the same time, this allows students to be able to use their strengths in order to help them grow in their weaknesses.

This advantage also relates to

motivation, because if the learner is a weak reader, but a very strong speaker, they may be prevented from becoming discouraged and unmotivated to continue learning the language.
In other words, if a student is

particularly strong in reading, they may be able to use this skill to help them with listening

Integrating the Language Skills:

In order to integrate the language skills in instruction, teachers should consider taking these steps: Learn more about the various ways to integrate language skills in the classroom (e.g., contentbased, task-based, or a combination).

Reflect on their current approach

and evaluate the extent to which the skills are integrated.


Choose instructional materials,

textbooks, and technologies that promote the integration of listening, reading, speaking, and writing, as well as the associated skills of syntax vocabulary, and so on.

Even if a given course is labeled

according to just one skill, remember that it is possible to integrate the other language skills through appropriate tasks.
Teach language learning

strategies and emphasize that a given strategy can often enhance performance in multiple skills.