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pH, INDICATOR &

BUFFER
Takrifan pH
Formula pH dan pOH dan cara pengiraan
Penerangan terhadap indikator dan kegunaannya
Senarai jenis jenis indikator dalam pentitratan
asid bes
Penerangan terhadap ciri ciri penting bagi
indikator yang baik
Penerangan mengenai larutan buffer dan
kegunaannya
Penerangan mengenai larutan buffer
berasid,beralkali dan biologikal

pH


pH is a unit of measure which describes the degree of acidity or
alkalinity (basic) of a solution.
It is measured on a scale of 0 to 14.

Mathematically: pH = -log[H
+
]
pH= power of hydrogen
log = logarithm (math function)
[H
+
] = concentration of H
+
expressed
in Molarity (moles/liter)
So this means
log 1000 = log 10
3
= 3 or that log 0.0000001 = log 10
-7
= 7
So this means that some pH problems, the ones that are powers of 10 are vey easy. Let's look
at some of these

log
10
100000 = log 10
5
= w log
10
0.001 = log 10
-3
= a
[H+] pH calculation pH
10
-1
pH = -log[H+] = - log 10
-1

= - -1 =
1
10
-2
pH = -log[H+] = - log 10
-2

= --2 =
2
10
-3
pH = -log [H+] = -log 10
-3

= --3 =
3
[H
+
] = 10
-pH

pOH
p_ is just a short hand way of describing large
concentration differences that exists for many
other particles. pAg describes the concentration
of silver ions. pCl describes the concentration of
Cl ions. pOH descries the concentration of
hydroxide ions. pOH is calculated in exactly the
same way that pH is calculated.

pOH = -log[OH
-
]

[OH-] = 0.00000000845 M Convert this first to a
number in scientific notation.

[OH-] = 8.45 x 10
-9
M (immediately you can see that
the pOH should be close to 8 or 9)

pOH = - log (8.45 x 10 -9) = -(-8.07) = 8.07
[OH] pH calculation pH
10
-1
pH = -log[OH
-
] = - log 10
-1

= - -1 =
1
10
-2
pH = -log[OH
-
] = - log 10
-2

= --2 =
2
10
-3
pH = -log [OH
-
] = -log 10
-3

= --3 =
3
[OH
-
] = 10
-pOH

Calculating pH
What is the pH if the hydrogen ion concentration in a
vinegar solution is 0.001 M?
pH = log[H
+
]
pH = log(0.001)
pH =

(

3) = 3
The pH of the vinegar is 3, so the vinegar is acidic.
The pH Scale
Most solutions have a pH between 0 and 14.
Acidic solutions have a pH less than 7.
As a solution becomes more acidic, the pH decreases.
Basic solutions have a pH greater than 7.
As a solution becomes more basic, the pH increases.
Pemalar keseimbangan

Kw: the ion-product constant of water
Q: will pure distilled water conduct electricity
A: As the demo shows, it will (slightly).
If water conducts electricity, ions must exist
Water exists as an equilibrium, which is
referred to as the self-ionization of water:
H
2
O + H
2
O H
3
O
+
(aq) + OH

(aq)
Simplified reaction: H
2
O H
+
(aq) + OH

(aq)

Kc =
[H
3
O
+
] [OH

]
[H
2
O]
2
Kw = or
[H
3
O
+
] [OH

]
Note: H
+
is just shorthand for H
3
O
+
Kc =
[H
+
] [OH

]
[H
2
O]

Kw = or
[H
+
] [OH

]
pH testing
There are several ways to test pH
Blue litmus paper (red = acid)
Red litmus paper (blue = basic)
pH paper (multi-colored)
pH meter (7 is neutral, <7 acid, >7
base)
Universal indicator (multi-colored)
Indicators like phenolphthalein
Natural indicators like red cabbage,
radishes
Paper testing
Paper tests like litmus paper
and pH paper
Put a stirring rod into the solution and
stir.
Take the stirring rod out, and place a
drop of the solution from the end of
the stirring rod onto a piece of the
paper
Read and record the color change.
Note what the color indicates.
You should only use a small portion of
the paper. You can use one piece of
paper for several tests.
20
Acid/Base Classifications of Solutions
A solution can be classified according to its pH:
Strongly acidic solutions have
a pH less than 2.
Weakly acidic solutions have
a pH between 2 and 7.
Weakly basic solutions have a
pH between 7 and 12.
Strongly basic solutions have
a pH greater than 12.
Neutral solutions have a pH
of 7.
The pH Concept
Recall that pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution.
A neutral solution has a pH of 7, an acidic solution has
a pH less than 7, and a basic solution has a pH greater
than 7.
The pH scale uses powers of ten to express the
hydrogen ion concentration.
Mathematically: pH = log[H
+
]
[H
+
] is the molar hydrogen ion concentration
Calculating pH
What is the pH if the hydrogen ion concentration in a
vinegar solution is 0.001 M?
pH = log[H
+
]
pH = log(0.001)
pH =

(

3) = 3
The pH of the vinegar is 3, so the vinegar is acidic.
Chapter 15 23
Calculating [H
+
] from pH
If we rearrange the pH equation for [H
+
], we get:
[H
+
] = 10
pH
Milk has a pH of 6. What is the concentration of
hydrogen ion in milk?
[H
+
] = 10
pH
= 10
6
= 0.000001 M

[H
+
] = 1 10
6
M.
Chapter 15 24
Advanced pH Calculations
What is the pH of blood with [H
+
] = 4.8 10
8
M?
pH = log[H
+
] = log(4.8 10
8
) = (7.32)
pH = 7.32
What is the [H
+
] in orange juice with a pH of 2.75?
[H
+
] = 10
pH
= 10
2.75
= 0. 0018 M
[H
+
] = 2.75 10
3
M
Manipulating pH
Algebraic manipulation of:
pH = - log [H
3
O
+
]
allows for:
[H
3
O
+
] = 10
-pH

If pH is a measure of the hydronium ion
concentration then the same equations could be
used to describe the hydroxide (base)
concentration.
[OH
-
] = 10
-pOH
pOH = - log [OH
-
]
thus:
pH + pOH = 14 ; the entire pH range!
pH Equations
You must know the following equations, which are all based on the ionization of
water at 25
0
C!

H
2
O H
+
+ OH
-


Kw = [H
+
][ OH
-
] = 1.00 x 10
-14


pH = -Log[H
+
] pOH = -Log[OH
-
]

[H
+
] = 10
-pH
[OH
-
] = 10
-pOH


pH + pOH = pKw = 14.000

Kepekatan Ion H+ dalam air tulen adalah 10
-7
M sama seperti ion OH-
Kepekatan H+ dan OH- adalah sama, maka air tulen adalah neutral
pH, INDICATOR &
BUFFER
Chapter 8 Introducing Acids & Bases
Water pH (Acid rain) in the USA in 2001
Conjugate acids & bases

Relation between [H
+
], [OH
-
], and pH?

8-3 Strengths of acids & bases
Strong Acids and Bases
Common strong acids and bases are listed in Table 8-1.
A strong acid or strong base is completely dissociated
in aqueous solution.



(8-4)

(8-5)
P.175
Carboxylic Acids Are Weak Acids and
Amines Are Weak Bases




(8-6)
P.175
8-3 Strengths of acids & bases
Ask yourself at p.178
Carboxylic Acids are Weak Acids and Amines are Weak Bases
Metal Ions with Charge 2 Are Weak Acids
A proton can dissociate from M(H
2
O)
w
n+
to reduce
the positive charge on the metal complex.
P.177
Relation Between Ka and Kb
8-4 pH of strong Acids & Bases
Example at p.180
The pH of 4.2 x 10
-3
M HClO
4
?
The pH of 4.2 x 10
-3
M KOH?

Can we dissolve base in water and
obtain an acidic pH (<7)?
8-5 Tools for Dealing with Weak Acids and Bases
pK the negative logarithm of an equilibrium
constant


Weak Is Conjugate to Weak
The conjugate base of a weak acid is a
weak base. The conjugate acid of a weak
base is a weak acid.

P.181



P.182
Using Appendix B
Acid dissociation constants appear in
Appendix B. Each compound is shown
in its fully protonated form.
Pyridoxal phosphate is given in its fully
protonated form as follows:

P.182
8-6 Weak-Acid Equilibrium








P.182
Fraction of Dissociation




Figure 8-4 compares the fraction
of dissociation of two weak acids
as a function of formal
concentration.

acid increase as it is diluted.

P.184
Chapter 9 Buffers
Buffered solution resists changes in pH when small
amounts of acids or base are added or when dilution
occurs.
pH dependence of the rate of a
particular enzyme-catalyzed
reaction.
The rate near pH 8 is twice as the
rate at pH 7 or 9
9.2 The Henderson-Hasselbalch eqn
| || |
| |
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| |
| |
| |
| | | | HA A n whe pK pH
acid
base
log pK pH
HA
A
log pH pK
HA
A
log H log logK

HA
A H
K A H HA
-
a
a
a
a
a
(aq) (aq)
(aq)
= =
+ =
=
=
= +

+
+
+
If pH = pKa, [HA] = [A
-
]
If pH < pKa, [HA] > [A
-
]
If pH > pKa, [HA] < [A
-
]


9-3 A Buffer in Action
Example: find the pH of a buffer solution at p. 198






Effect of adding acid to a buffer
9-4 Preparing Buffers
Example at p. 202
In the real life p. 203
Preparing a Buffer in Real Life
Suppose you wish to prepare 1.00 L of buffer
containing 0.100 M tris at pH 7.60. When we say
0.100 M tris, we mean that the total concentration of
tris plus tris H+ will be 0.100M.
Procedure:
1. Weigh out 0.100 mol tris hydrochloride and dissolve it in a
beaker containing about 800 mL water and a stirring bar.
2. Place a pH electrode in the solution and monitor the pH.
3. Add NaOH solution until the pH is exactly 7.60. The electrode
does not respond instantly.
4. Transfer the solution to a volumetric flask and wash the beaker
and stirring bar a few times. Add the washings to the
volumetric flask.
5. Dilute to the mark and mix.
P.202
9.5 Buffer capacity -1
The amount of H
+
or OH
-

that buffered solution can
absorb without a significant
change in pH
Buffer capacity measures how well a solution resists changes
in pH when acid or base is added.
The greater the buffer capacity, the less the pH changes.
9.5 Buffer capacity -2
| |
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| |
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| |
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| |
| |
0.67
0.06
0.04
HA
A
1
0.05
0.05
HA
A
: B
0.996
5.01
4.99
HA
A
1
5.00
5.00
HA
A
: A
H mol 0.01
H mol 0.01
= = = =
= = = =

+
+
2) Magnitudes of [HA] and [A
-
]
the capacity of a buffered soln.
Ex : soln A : 5.00 M HOAc + 5.00 M NaOAc
soln B : 0.05 M HOAc + 0.05 M NaOAc
pH change when 0.01 mol of HCl(g) is added

9.5 Buffer capacity -3
3) [A
-
] / [HA] ratio the pH of a buffered soln.
| |
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| |
soln new 50.5% soln original
49.5
HA
A
100
0.01
1.00
HA
A
0.98
HA
A
1.00
1.00
1.00
HA
A
2% : C
H mol 0.01
H mol 0.01
A
A
= = =
= = =


+
+
Table 9-2 Structures and pK
a
values for common buffers
P.205
9.6 How indicators work -1
1) Usually a weak organic acid or base
that has distinctly different colors in its
nonionized & ionized forms.

HIn
(aq)
H
+
(aq)
+ In
-
(aq)
pK
HIn

nonionized ionized
form form
9.6 How indicators work -2
1)


2)


3)
| |
| |
| |
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| | | |
-
HIn
-
HIn
In & HIn of color the of n combinatio
In HIn
1 pK pH
In of color the show
10
HIn
In
1 - pK pH
HIn of color the show
10
In
HIn

~
+ >
>
s
>

9.6 How indicators work -3


2) The useful pH range for indicator is
pK
HIn
1
(Fig 10.3)
encompass the pH at equivalence point
(titration curve)
3) Not all indicators change color at the same
pH. (Table 9.3)
Table 9-3

Two different sets of colors