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Prof M. R. Suresh

Measurement: defined as a standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of objects of interest according to prespecified rules.
important as statistical analyses can be done on appropriate scales two characteristics:
one-to-one correspondence between the symbol and the characteristic (in the object) being measured rules of assignment must be invariant over time

Scaling is a process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of measured characteristic they possess
Type of Scale

Statistical Tests
Percentage, mode, chi-square

Interval Ratio

Percentile, median Rank-Order Correlation Friedmans ANOVA

Mean, , t-test, ANOVA, Regression analysis correlation G.M, H.M. coefficient of variation

Nominal Scale
objects are assigned to mutually exclusive, labeled categories E.g. Male, female,Geographical area if one entity is assigned the same number as another, they are identical with respect to a nominal variable

Ordinal Scale
obtained by ranking objects or arranging them in order with respect to some common variable E.g. Ranks of students, seniors, juniors in a college

Interval Scale in this the numbers used to rank the objects represent equal increments of attribute being measured differences can be compared difference between 2 & 3 same as 6 & 7 but half the difference between 2 and 4 no absolute zero
E.G of interval scale: attitude measures, indices, temperature scales Ratio Scale meaningful zero point makes comparisons in absolute magnitude measuring public opinion

Issues in Designing Single item Scales

1. Number of scale categories 2 to capability, format, object attribute 2. Types of poles verbal descriptors as endpoints e.g. sweet ----- not sweet 3. Strength of anchors extremely colorful, very colorful 4. Labeling 5. Balancing

Single Item Scales only one item to measure a construct 1. Itemized category scale Satisfaction with present health insurance plan
- very satisfied - quite satisfied - somewhat satisfied - not at all satisfied Very satisfied Very dissatisfied +2 +1 0 -1 -2

2. Comparative scales E.g. Rank-Order Scales require respondents to arrange a set of objects with respect to common criterion Two problems forced to make a choice, undifferentiated middle Constant sum scale Limitation only a few categories Q sort scaling Paired comparison

Multiple Item Scales

Objects have many facets Likert scale also known as summated scale degree of agreement/disagreement on a variety of statements two parts : item part, evaluative part important assumption: single common factor Thurstone scale also called equal appearing intervals group of judges are given 75 to 100 items degree of favourableness (11 category bipolar) scale value of each items is the median value assigned by judges complicated

Semantic Differential widely used e.g. images of competing brands preference of bipolar scales pairs of objects/phrases correspond to product/service attributes -ve or unfavorable pole rotated treated as interval scales, group mean values calculated specific information can be lost Unipolar Tangy +3/ +2/ +1 -1/ -1/ -1

Associative scaling Appropriate for choice situation in a sequential decision process trade offs not captured reduced validity

Guidelines scale




1. Determine what you want to measure 2. Generate as many items as possible 3. Experts evaluation of initial pool of items 4. Determine type of attitudinal scale to be used 5. Include validation items 6. Administer items to an initial sample 7. Refine 8. Optimize scale length

Choice of an attitudinal scale

specific info required to satisfy research objectives adaptability of scale to collection method, budget data

compatibility to respondent

Accuracy of attitude measurements True Score Model

XO = XT + XS (affects in a constant way) + XR (transient factor {situational})

Validity Content/face validity: subjective but

systematic evaluation of how well the content of a scale represents the measurement task

Criterion validity: reflects whether a scale performs as expected in related to other variables selected (criterion) concurrent validity predictive validity
Construct Validity convergent validity discriminant validity

test retest split half

among altitudes

ability meaningful

to discriminate differences in

Generalisability Relevancy
Relevance = reliability X validity

International MR