15
15
1 10 g
(2.0 fg) = 2.0 10 g
1 fg
 

\ .
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Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
Chapter 1
Sample Problem, continued
Take the previous answer, and use a similar process to
cancel the units of grams to give units of kilograms.
15 18
3
1 kg
(2.0 10 g) = 2.0 10 kg
1 10 g
 

\ .
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Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
Chapter 1
Accuracy and Precision
Accuracy is a description of how close a
measurement is to the correct or accepted value of
the quantity measured.
Precision is the degree of exactness of a
measurement.
A numeric measure of confidence in a measurement
or result is known as uncertainty. A lower
uncertainty indicates greater confidence.
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Chapter 1
Accuracy and Precision
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Resources Chapter menu
Chapter 1
Measurement and Parallax
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
Chapter 1
Significant Figures
It is important to record the precision of your
measurements so that other people can understand
and interpret your results.
A common convention used in science to indicate
precision is known as significant figures.
Significant figures are those digits in a
measurement that are known with certainty plus the
first digit that is uncertain.
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Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
Chapter 1
Significant Figures, continued
Even though this ruler is
marked in only centimeters
and halfcentimeters, if you
estimate, you can use it to
report measurements to a
precision of a millimeter.
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Chapter 1
Rules for Determining Significant Zeroes
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Resources Chapter menu
Chapter 1
Rules for Determining Significant Zeros
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Resources Chapter menu
Chapter 1
Rules for Calculating with Significant Figures
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Resources Chapter menu
Chapter 1
Rules for Rounding in Calculations
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Resources Chapter menu
Chapter 1
Rules for Rounding in Calculations
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
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Section 3 The Language of
Physics
Chapter 1
Objectives
Interpret data in tables and graphs, and recognize
equations that summarize data.
Distinguish between conventions for abbreviating
units and quantities.
Use dimensional analysis to check the validity of
equations.
Perform orderofmagnitude calculations.
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Chapter 1
Mathematics and Physics
Tables, graphs, and equations can make data
easier to understand.
For example, consider an experiment to test Galileos
hypothesis that all objects fall at the same rate in the
absence of air resistance.
In this experiment, a tabletennis ball and a golf ball are
dropped in a vacuum.
The results are recorded as a set of numbers corresponding
to the times of the fall and the distance each ball falls.
A convenient way to organize the data is to form a table,
as shown on the next slide.
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
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Chapter 1
Data from DroppedBall Experiment
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
A clear trend can be seen in the data. The more time that
passes after each ball is dropped, the farther the ball falls.
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Chapter 1
Graph from DroppedBall Experiment
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
One method for analyzing the data is to construct a
graph of the distance the balls have fallen versus the
elapsed time since they were released.
The shape of the
graph provides
information about
the relationship
between time and
distance.
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Chapter 1
Interpreting Graphs
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
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Chapter 1
Physics Equations
Physicists use equations to describe measured or
predicted relationships between physical quantities.
Variables and other specific quantities are abbreviated
with letters that are boldfaced or italicized.
Units are abbreviated with regular letters, sometimes
called roman letters.
Two tools for evaluating physics equations are
dimensional analysis and orderofmagnitude
estimates.
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
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Chapter 1
Equation from DroppedBall Experiment
We can use the following equation to describe the relationship
between the variables in the droppedball experiment:
(change in position in meters) = 4.9 (time in seconds)
2
With symbols, the word equation above can be written as follows:
Ay = 4.9(At)
2
The Greek letter A (delta) means change in. The abbreviation
Ay indicates the vertical change in a balls position from its
starting point, and At indicates the time elapsed.
This equation allows you to reproduce the graph and make
predictions about the change in position for any time.
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
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Chapter 1
Evaluating Physics Equations
Section 3 The Language of
Physics
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Multiple Choice
1. What area of physics deals with the subjects
of heat and temperature?
A. mechanics
B. thermodynamics
C. electrodynamics
D. quantum mechanics
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice
1. What area of physics deals with the subjects
of heat and temperature?
A. mechanics
B. thermodynamics
C. electrodynamics
D. quantum mechanics
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
2. What area of physics deals with the behavior of
subatomic particles?
F. mechanics
G. thermodynamics
H. electrodynamics
J. quantum mechanics
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Multiple Choice, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
2. What area of physics deals with the behavior of
subatomic particles?
F. mechanics
G. thermodynamics
H. electrodynamics
J. quantum mechanics
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Multiple Choice, continued
3. What term describes a set of particles or interacting
components considered to be a distinct physical
entity for the purpose of study?
A. system
B. model
C. hypothesis
D. controlled experiment
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
3. What term describes a set of particles or interacting
components considered to be a distinct physical
entity for the purpose of study?
A. system
B. model
C. hypothesis
D. controlled experiment
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
4. What is the SI base unit for length?
F. inch
G. foot
H. meter
J. kilometer
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
4. What is the SI base unit for length?
F. inch
G. foot
H. meter
J. kilometer
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
5. A lightyear (ly) is a unit of distance defined as the
distance light travels in one year.Numerically, 1 ly =
9 500 000 000 000 km. How many meters are in a
lightyear?
A. 9.5 10
10
m
B. 9.5 10
12
m
C. 9.5 10
15
m
D. 9.5 10
18
m
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Multiple Choice, continued
5. A lightyear (ly) is a unit of distance defined as the
distance light travels in one year.Numerically, 1 ly =
9 500 000 000 000 km. How many meters are in a
lightyear?
A. 9.5 10
10
m
B. 9.5 10
12
m
C. 9.5 10
15
m
D. 9.5 10
18
m
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
6. If you do not keep your line of sight directly over a
length measurement, how will your measurement
most likely be affected?
F. Your measurement will be less precise.
G. Your measurement will be less accurate.
H. Your measurement will have fewer significant
figures.
J. Your measurement will suffer from instrument
error.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
6. If you do not keep your line of sight directly over a
length measurement, how will your measurement
most likely be affected?
F. Your measurement will be less precise.
G. Your measurement will be less accurate.
H. Your measurement will have fewer significant
figures.
J. Your measurement will suffer from instrument
error.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
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Multiple Choice, continued
7. If you measured the length of a pencil by using the
meterstick shown in the figure and you report your
measurement in centimeters, how many significant
figures should your reported measurement have?
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
7. If you measured the length of a pencil by using the
meterstick shown in the figure and you report your
measurement in centimeters, how many significant
figures should your reported measurement have?
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
8. A room is measured to be 3.6 m by 5.8 m.What is
the area of the room? (Keep significant figures in
mind.)
F. 20.88 m
2
G. 2 10
1
m
2
H. 2.0 10
1
m
2
J. 21 m
2
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
8. A room is measured to be 3.6 m by 5.8 m.What is
the area of the room? (Keep significant figures in
mind.)
F. 20.88 m
2
G. 2 10
1
m
2
H. 2.0 10
1
m
2
J. 21 m
2
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
9. What technique can help you determine the power of
10 closest to the actual numerical value of a
quantity?
A. rounding
B. orderofmagnitude estimation
C. dimensional analysis
D. graphical analysis
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
9. What technique can help you determine the power of
10 closest to the actual numerical value of a
quantity?
A. rounding
B. orderofmagnitude estimation
C. dimensional analysis
D. graphical analysis
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
10. Which of the following statements is true of any
valid physical equation?
F. Both sides have the same dimensions.
G. Both sides have the same variables.
H. There are variables but no numbers.
J. There are numbers but no variables.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Resources Chapter menu
Multiple Choice, continued
10. Which of the following statements is true of any
valid physical equation?
F. Both sides have the same dimensions.
G. Both sides have the same variables.
H. There are variables but no numbers.
J. There are numbers but no variables.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Multiple Choice, continued
The graph shows the relationship between time and
distance for a ball dropped vertically from rest. Use
the graph to answer questions 1112.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
11. About how far has the
ball fallen after 0.20 s?
A. 5.00 cm
B. 10.00 cm
C. 20.00 cm
D. 30.00 cm
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Multiple Choice, continued
The graph shows the relationship between time and
distance for a ball dropped vertically from rest. Use
the graph to answer questions 1112.
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
11. About how far has the
ball fallen after 0.20 s?
A. 5.00 cm
B. 10.00 cm
C. 20.00 cm
D. 30.00 cm
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Multiple Choice, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
12. Which statement best describes the relationship
between the variables?
F. For equal time intervals, the
change in position is increasing.
G. For equal time intervals, the
change in position is decreasing.
H. For equal time intervals, the
change in position is constant.
J. There is no clear relationship
between time and change in
position.
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Multiple Choice, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
12. Which statement best describes the relationship
between the variables?
F. For equal time intervals, the
change in position is increasing.
G. For equal time intervals, the
change in position is decreasing.
H. For equal time intervals, the
change in position is constant.
J. There is no clear relationship
between time and change in
position.
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Short Response
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
13. Determine the number of significant figures
in each of the following measurements.
A. 0.0057 kg
B. 5.70 g
C. 6070 m
D. 6.070 10
3
m
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Short Response
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
13. Determine the number of significant figures
in each of the following measurements.
A. 0.0057 kg
B. 5.70 g
C. 6070 m
D. 6.070 10
3
m
Answers:
A. 2; B. 3; C. 3; D. 4
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Resources Chapter menu
Short Response, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
14. Calculate the following sum, and express the
answer in meters. Follow the rules for significant
figures.
(25.873 km) + (1024 m) + (3.0 10
2
cm)
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Short Response, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
14. Calculate the following sum, and express the
answer in meters. Follow the rules for significant
figures.
(25.873 km) + (1024 m) + (3.0 10
2
cm)
Answer: 26 897 m
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Short Response, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
15. Demonstrate how dimensional analysis can be used
to find the dimensions that result from dividing
distance by speed.
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Short Response, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
15. Demonstrate how dimensional analysis can be used
to find the dimensions that result from dividing
distance by speed.
Answer:
distance distance time
distance = time
time distance
=
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Resources Chapter menu
Extended Response
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
16. You have decided to test the effects of four different
garden fertilizers by applying them to four separate
rows of vegetables. What factors should you
control? How could you measure the results?
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Extended Response
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
16. You have decided to test the effects of four different
garden fertilizers by applying them to four separate
rows of vegetables. What factors should you
control? How could you measure the results?
Sample answer: Because the type of fertilizer is the
variable being tested, all other factors should be
controlled, including the type of vegetable, the
amount of water, and the amount of sunshine. A fifth
row with no fertilizer could be used as the control
group. Results could be measured by size, quantity,
appearance, and taste.
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Extended Response, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
17. In a paragraph, describe how you could estimate
the number of blades of grass on a football field.
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Resources Chapter menu
Extended Response, continued
Standardized Test Prep
Chapter 1
17. In a paragraph, describe how you could estimate
the number of blades of grass on a football field.
Answer: Paragraphs should describe a process similar
to the following: First, you could count the number of
blades of grass in a small area, such as a 10 cm by
10 cm square. You would round this to the nearest
order of magnitude, then multiply by the number of
such squares along the length of the field, and then
multiply again by the approximate number of such
squares along the width of the field.
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Chapter 1
The Scientific Method
Section 1 What Is Physics?
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Resources Chapter menu
Chapter 1
Hypotheses
Section 1 What Is Physics?
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Resources Chapter menu
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
Chapter 1
SI Prefixes
Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Resources Chapter menu
Section 2 Measurements in
Experiments
Chapter 1
Significant Figures
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