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Rotor-Earth-Fault
Protection
Power Automation 2
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Presenter: Dr. Hans-Joachim Herrmann
PTD PA13
Phone +49 911 433 8266
E-Mail: Hans-Joachim.Herrmann@siemens.com
Generator Protection
Rotor-Earth-Fault Protection
Power Automation 3
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Requirement for Rotor Earth Fault Protection
in case of an earth fault, only small currents flow due to the galvanical isolation

Problem:
Double earth faults and interturn faults as a consequence of an earth fault cause:
magnetical unbalance (unbalanced forces; violent vibration)
high currents at the fault location



Task: Detection an earth fault already when it starts to build up
Destruction of the Rotor (Generator)
Earth fault in the rotor
R
E

C
E

Rotor
Excitation
system
+
-
Stator
Power Automation 4
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Protection Principle
Excitation
system
+
-
Voltage
Source
Earthing brush
Coupling
Unit
Measuring
- Incoupling of an AC voltage (50 Hz or 60 Hz)
- Measuring of the earth fault current
- Measuring of the earth fault resistance

- Incoupling of low frequency square wave voltage
Principles:
Higher
Sensitivity
Power Automation 5
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth Current Criterion
Principle (50 Hz/60Hz - Voltage Injection)
Coordinated
resonant circuit to f
N

>40V
If disturbance influence from the excitation is to large
I
E

Protection
Pick-up limit:
I
E,Fault
> I
E,Dist...
L1 L2 L3
I
E,Distr.

I
E,Fault

4F 105O
0,75H
Connection
on the earthing
brush
Power Automation 6
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth Current Measurement
Connection
Also I
EE2

at 7UM62
is
possible
I
EE1
J7
J8
1B1
1B3
1A1
1A3
+
-
4A1
4B1
3PP1336
Err.
2B1
7UM6
Connection on the
phase to phase
voltage
7XR61
100 V - 125 V AC
105O
105O
AC Voltage
Source
appr. 42V or
65V
Documentation for Coupling Device in the Internet
www.siprotec.com
External resistors
at excitation voltages
> 150 V (circulating current >0,2A)
Power Automation 7
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Gain Characteristic of the R, C, L-Circuit
Z 50 ( ) 169.65 = Z 60 ( ) 69.531 =
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Filt erverhalt en Bandpa
Frequenz in Hz
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
z

i
n

O
h
m
Z f ( )
f
mA 27
k 1,5 170
V 45
I
R Z
U
I

f Coupling
~
O + O
=
+
=
Imax approx. 300 mA
Power Automation 8
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth Current Criterion
Protection Settings
Protection with two stages:
Measuring circuit supervision
mA 23
k 1,5 400
V 45
I
R Z
U
I

f Coupling
~
O + O
=
+
=
Z
Couplingl
(50Hz) = 400O
Z
Couplingl
(60Hz) = 335O
Imax ca. 100 mA

(voltage source decreases a little bit )
Note: Coupling impedance only with R and C
Finally setting during commissioning
Power Automation 9
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth Current Criterion
Logic
Power Automation 10
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Calculation of the Fault Resistance R
E
(50Hz/60Hz- Voltage Injection)
100V 42V
u
Digital
protection
(7UM62)
calculation
of R
E

R
E
C
E

R
V

C
K

R
V
C
K

L1 L2 L3
i
L
1)

1) Recommended
at static excitation
with inject harmonics
(3rd harm.; 6th harm.)
Power Automation 11
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Calculation Formula of the Fault Resistance R
E
(1) (2)


(3)


(4)



combining (3) and (4):




Note: R
V
* and X
K
* are measured during commissioning
Model:
Z
ers
Z
Mess
Z
X*
K

R*
V

X
E

R
E

{ }
V E
2
E
2
E
2
E E
* R -



,
Z R
X R
X R
R =
+

=
{ } { } Z Z R Z j
m e Mess
I + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ =
2
E
2
E
E
2
E
K
2
E E
2
E E
V


- - j

2


ers
X R
X R
* X
X R
X R
* R Z
{ }
K m 2
E
2
E
E
2
E
-



,
* X Z
X R
X R
X I =
+

=
{ } ( )
{ }
{ }
V
V e
2
K m
2
E
-
e
-
- -

,
,
,
* R Z R
* R Z R
* X Z
R
R
X
R + = + =
I
Power Automation 12
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth Fault Resistance Calculation
Logic
Power Automation 13
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth Fault Resistance Calculation
Settings
Measured during commissioning
Measuring circuit supervision
Measured current can be influenced by disturbances
Correction during primary test,
(in most case the alarm stage is concerned)
Power Automation 14
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Injection of Square Wave Voltage with Low Frequency
Basic Diagram

Excitation
+
-
C
E

R
E

Digital
Protection
(7UM62)
U
H

R
V

R
V

U
control

U
meas.

R
M

7XR6004
Controlling device
(7XT71)
I
E

Measuring
transducer
R
E
Fault resistance
R
V
Coupling resistor
U
H
Auxiliary supply ( 50V)
R
M
Measuring shunt resistor
C
E
Rotor capacitance
Typical frequency:
1 - 3 Hz
Power Automation 15
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Injection of Square Wave Voltage
Connection Diagram (7UM62)

Connection on the
phase to phase
voltage
Exc.
17
15
11
25
+
-
27
7XR6004
25
27
7UM62
7XT71
TD1
K14
K13 +
TD2
K16
K15 +
40 kO
40 kO
Control voltage
Measuring voltage
100 V
110 V
120 V
9
7
Power Automation 16
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Injection of Square Wave Voltage with Low Frequency
Basic Principle
R
V
2
R
E

C
E

U
H

U
M
R
M

U
H

U
M

U
M

50V
- 50V
1,88V
- 1,88V
0,75V
- 0,75V
t
t
t
i
E

50V
375
20k
2
H
M
V
=
O =
O =
U
R
R
E M M
i R U =
=
E
R
O ~ 5k
E
R
0
M
~ AU
E
V

2
C
R
~ t
E
M
1
~
R
U A
Equivalent circuit:
Power Automation 17
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Sources of Error and Error Compensation
Influence of field voltage and earth fault location
a) Earth fault location
Shifting of measuring voltage with
a positive or negative dc voltage
b) Jumps in the field voltage
a change in the field voltage takes
to jumps in the dc-voltage shifting

U
dc
= dc voltage shifting


Solution:
Calculation of the difference voltage
A U = |U
M1
- U
M2
|
AU
1
= |U
M1
- U
M2
| A U
3
= |U
M3
- U
M4
|
A U
2
= |U
M2
- U
M3
|

Solution:
Block of measuring
at jumps (e.g. AU
1
= AU
2
)
U
M

U
dc

U
dc1

U
M1

U
M2

U
M3

U
M4

U
M1

U
M2

U
dc2

U
M

Power Automation 18
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Calculation Formulas
R
E
C
E

U
H

U
M
R
M

R
V
2
U
M

U
1

U
2

Algorithm
Voltage divider:
Filtering:




Amplitude-log frequency curve: f
A
= 800 Hz; N = 64
2
- 1 -
2 V
M
M
H
E
M
M E
V
M
H
R
R
U
U
R
R
R R
R
U
U
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ +
=
= =
= =
N N
u
N
U u
N
U
1 i
i 2,
2
1 i
i 1,
1
1
;
1

2
-
: :
2 1
M
U U
U U = A =
1 K K
I I
+
A ~ A U U
A = A
=
8
1 k
k
U
8
1
U
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
f in Hz
G(f)
Continuity supervision:
Validity requirement

otherwise
Power Automation 19
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Logic Diagram Rotor Earth Fault Protection (1-3Hz)
Power Automation 20
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Rotor Earth Fault Protection (1-3Hz)
Setting Values
Measuring circuit supervision
If the integrated test function is used,
pick-up value of test resistor
Advanced parameter
only visible in DIGSI
Power Automation 21
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Connection of the Rotor Earth Fault Protection
G
RW
R
E

C
E

EM
EX-T
L+
RW
U
G

R
E
C
E

L-
(50/60 Hz)
(1 - 3 Hz)
(50/60 Hz)
(1 - 3 Hz)
40kO
4F
4F
a) rotating diodes
b) separate Exciter
(static excitation)
40kO
Power Automation 22
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Generator with Rotating Excitation
Fault Free Condition (Square Wave Principle)
Chance of charge of
rotor earth capacitance
Disturbances by the
excitation generator
Power Automation 23
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Generator with Rotating Excitation
Test Condition with a Fault Resistor

Fault resistor is inverse proportional to the difference voltage
Power Automation 24
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Parallel Operation of Rotor Earth Fault Protections
100V 42V
C
K
;4F
C
K
;4F
R
K
;105O
R
K
;105O R
V
;40kO
R
V
;40kO
R
E

7UM62
7UM62
u
Control

u
Meas.

i
REF

u
REF

7UM61
nur
i
REF

or
1- 3 Hz principle
50 Hz principle
Power Automation 25
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Parallel Operation of Rotor Earth Fault Protections
Measurement with the 50/60 Hz Principle
( )
O 20k
2
R
V
*
K
R *
K
C
E
R
2
ll : *
V
E E
R
R R =
O = =
=
20k
2
*

V
E
E
R
R
R
O =
O =
4k *
5k
E
E
R
R
Measurement 7UM61 or 7UM62
(R
V
is earthed for an AC voltage)

Equivalent circuit:









seen from the 7UM6, R
V
already
is interpreted as a rotor-to-earth
resistance


Measurement:

measured as a fault resistance



Case 1:


Case 2:


alarm stage becomes less sensitive

open brushes can not be find out

Power Automation 26
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
R
V
2
R
E
R
M

2C
K
(8F)
U
meas

AU

2
Measurement 7UM62 (1- 3 Hz)
(C
K
is earthed for a DC voltage)

Equivalent circuit:
seen from the 7UM6:
high rotor capacitance

capacitors will not be
completely loaded

A U ~ R
E
-1

under no-earth-fault conditions
a fault resistance is already measured
alarm stage becomes less sensitive
(approx. 50kO)
longer measuring time
Parallel Operation of Rotor Earth Fault Protections
Measurement with the Square Wave Principle