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Controlled

Semi-
Controlled
Dual
I
o
V
dc
-V
dc
-I
o
Chapter 3
Chapter 10
Rectifier
Mode
Inverter
Mode
Rectifier
Mode
Inverter
Mode
}
t
e e
t
=
0
2
1
) t ( d t sin V
m
}
t
e e
t
=
0
1
) t ( d t sin V V
m dc
}
t
e e
t
=
3
0
3
3
2
2
/
m dc
) t ( d t cos V V
}
t
e e
t
=
6
0
3
6
2
2
/
m dc
) t ( d t cos V V
}
o + t
o
e e
t
= ) t ( d t sin V
m
2
1
}
o + t
o
e e
t
= ) t ( d t sin V V
m dc
1
) . (
/
/
m dc
) t ( d t sin V V 19 10
6 5
6
2
3
}
o + t
o + t
e e
t
=
}
o + t
o + t
e
t
+ e
t
=
2
6
6
3
3
/
/
m dc
) t ( d ) t sin( V V
rms dc
max
dc
V . V
V
V
45 0 =
t
=
rms dc
max
dc
V . V
V
V
9 0
2
=
t
=
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
V . V
V
V
17 1
2
3 3
=
t
=
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
rms dc
max
dc
45 0
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
rms dc
max
dc
9 0
2
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
17 1
2
3 3
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
V . V
V
V
35 1
3
=
t
=
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
35 1
3
To Derive an Expression for the
Average Output Voltage of a
3-Phase Half Wave Converter with
RL Load for Continuous Load Current
Vector Diagram of 3 Phase Supply
Voltages
V
AN
V
CN
V
BN
120
0
120
0
120
0
RN AN
YN BN
BN CN
v v
v v
v v
=
=
=
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
sin ;
Max. Phase Voltage
2
sin
3
sin 120
2
sin
3
sin 120
sin 240
RN an m
m
YN bn m
m
BN cn m
m
m
v v V t
V
v v V t
V t
v v V t
V t
V t
e
t
e
e
t
e
e
e
= =
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
=
| |
= = +
|
\ .
= +
=
V
AN
V
CN
V
BN
120
0
120
0
120
0
120
o
conduction

( )
( )
5
6
6
5
6
6
3
sin .
2
3
cos
2
3 5
cos cos
2 6 6
m
dc
m
dc
m
dc
V
V t d t
V
V t
V
V
t
o
t
o
t
o
t
o
e e
t
e
t
t t
o o
t
+
+
+
+
(
(
=
(
(

(
(
=
(
(

(
| | | |
= + + +
| |
(
\ . \ .

}
120
o
conduction

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0
Note from the trigonometric relationship
cos cos .cos sin .sin
5 5
cos cos sin sin
6 6
3
2
co
cos 150 cos sin 150 sin
3
2
cos 30
s .cos sin sin
6 6
.cos
m
dc
m
dc
A
V
V
B A B A B
V
V
t t
o o
t
t t
o
o
o
o
t
o
+ =
(
| | | |
+
| |
(
\ . \ .
(
=
(
| | | |
+
( | |
\ . \ .

+
=

( )
( )
0
sin 30 sin o
(
(
(

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0
Note: cos 1
cos 180 30 cos sin 180 30 sin
3
2
cos 30 .cos sin 30 sin
cos 30 cos sin 30 sin
3
2
cos 30 .cos sin 30 s
80 30 cos 30
sin 180 30 sin 30
in
m
dc
m
dc
V
V
V
V
o o
t
o o
o o
t
o o
=
(
+
(
=
(
+

(
+ +
(
=
(
+

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0
3
2cos 30 cos
2
3 3
2 cos
2 2
3 3 3
3 cos cos
2 2
3
cos
2
Where 3 Max. line to line supply voltage
m
dc
m
dc
m m
dc
Lm
dc
Lm m
V
V
V
V
V V
V
V
V
V V
o
t
o
t
o o
t t
o
t
(
=

(
=
(

(
= =

=
= =
( )
max
The maximum average or dc output voltage is
obtained at a delay angle 0 and is given by
3 3
2
Where is the peak phase voltage.
And the normalized average output voltage is
m
dm
dc
m
d
dcn n
V
V V
V
V
V V
o
t
=
= =
= = cos
c
dm
V
o =
( )
( )
( )
1
5
2
6
2 2
6
1
2
The rms value of output voltage is found by
using the equation
3
sin .
2
and we obtain
1 3
3 cos 2
6 8
m
O RMS
m
O RMS
V V t d t
V V
t
o
t
o
e e
t
o
t
+
+
(
(
=
(
(

(
= +
(

}
Three Phase Full Converter
3 Phase Fully Controlled Full Wave Bridge Converter.
Known as a 6-pulse converter.
Used in industrial applications up to 120kW output
power.
Two quadrant operation is possible.
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
sin ; Max. Phase Voltage
2
sin sin 120
3
2
sin sin 120
3
sin 240
RN an m m
YN bn m m
BN cn m m
m
v v V t V
v v V t V t
v v V t V t
V t
V
e
t
e e
t
e e
e
= = =
| |
= = =
|
\ .
| |
= = + = +
|
\ .
=
is the peak phase voltage of a wye-connected source.
m
( )
2
6
6
. ;
2
3 sin
6
dc O
O dc
O ab m
V V v d t
v v V t
t
o
t
o
e
t
t
e
+
+
= =
| |
= = +
|
\ .
}
The output load voltage consists of 6 voltage
pulses over a period of 2t radians, Hence the
average output voltage is calculated as
The thyristors are triggered at an interval of t / 3.
60
o
conduction

( )
2
6
mL
max
3
3 sin .
6
3 3 3
cos cos
Where V 3 Max. line-to-line supply vo
The maximum average dc output voltage is
obtained for a delay angle
ltage
3 3
0,
3
dc m
m mL
dc
m
m m
dm
dc
V V t d t
V V
V
V
V V
V V
t
o
t
o
t
e e
t
o o
t
o
t
t
+
+
| |
= +
|
\ .
= =
=
=
=
= = =
}
L
t
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
6
The normalized average dc output voltage is
cos
The rms value of the output voltage is found from
6
.
2
dc
dcn n
dm
O
O rms
V
V V
V
V v d t
t
o
t
o
o
e
t
+
+
= = =
(
(
=
(
(

}
u=-t/m
u=-t/m+o
u=0
u=t/m+o
u=t/m
o
t
t
= cos
m /
) m / sin( V
V
m
dc
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u
t
=
2
2
1
/
/
m dc
) ( d cos V V
Example: Single
Phase Full Wave
controlled rectifier
(called 2-Phase or
2-pulse rectifier)
m=2
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos sin V V
rms dc
2
2 2
o = cos V . V
rms dc
9 0
90
0
conduction
2-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
Draw
? cos V . V
rms dc
0 9 0 =
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u
t
=
3
3
3 2
1
/
/
m dc
) ( d cos V
/
V
Example: 3-Phase
Half Wave controlled
rectifier
called 3-Phase or
3-pulse rectifier)
m=3
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos sin V V
rms dc
3
3 2
o = cos V . V
rms dc
17 1
120
0
conduction
3-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
3-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
m=3
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u
t
=
6
6
6 2
1
/
/
m dc
) ( d cos V
/
V
Example: 3-Phase
Half Wave controlled
rectifier
(called 3-Phase or
6-pulse rectifier)
m=6
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos sin V V
rms dc
6
6 2
o = cos V . V
rms dc
35 1
60
0
conduction
6-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
Three Phase Dual Converters
Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
Four Quadrant Operation
Conv. 2
Inverting
o
2
> 90
0
Conv. 2
Rectifyin
g
o
2
< 90
0
Conv. 1
Rectifyin
g
o
1
< 90
0
Conv. 1
Inverting
o
1
> 90
0
3 Phase Half Controlled Bridge Converter (Semi Converter) with
Highly Inductive Load & Continuous Ripple free Load Current
3 Phase semiconverters are used in Industrial dc drive
applications up to 120kW power output.
Single quadrant operation is possible.
Power factor decreases as the delay angle increases.
Power factor is better than that of 3 phase half wave
converter.
Practice Problem
For controlled RL rectifier, the source is
120V
rms
at 60Hz, R=20O, L=0.04H, delay
angle is 45
o
and extinction angle is 217
o
.
Determine
i. An expression for i(et)
ii. Average current and voltage
iii. Power absorbed by load
iv. Power factor