Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

# Controlled

Semi-
Controlled
Dual
I
o
V
dc
-V
dc
-I
o
Chapter 3
Chapter 10
Rectifier
Mode
Inverter
Mode
Rectifier
Mode
Inverter
Mode
}
t
e e
t
=
0
2
1
) t ( d t sin V
m
}
t
e e
t
=
0
1
) t ( d t sin V V
m dc
}
t
e e
t
=
3
0
3
3
2
2
/
m dc
) t ( d t cos V V
}
t
e e
t
=
6
0
3
6
2
2
/
m dc
) t ( d t cos V V
}
o + t
o
e e
t
= ) t ( d t sin V
m
2
1
}
o + t
o
e e
t
= ) t ( d t sin V V
m dc
1
) . (
/
/
m dc
) t ( d t sin V V 19 10
6 5
6
2
3
}
o + t
o + t
e e
t
=
}
o + t
o + t
e
t
+ e
t
=
2
6
6
3
3
/
/
m dc
) t ( d ) t sin( V V
rms dc
max
dc
V . V
V
V
45 0 =
t
=
rms dc
max
dc
V . V
V
V
9 0
2
=
t
=
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
V . V
V
V
17 1
2
3 3
=
t
=
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
rms dc
max
dc
45 0
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
rms dc
max
dc
9 0
2
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
17 1
2
3 3
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
V . V
V
V
35 1
3
=
t
=
o =
o
t
=
cos V . V
cos
V
V
) LL ( rms dc
) LL max(
dc
35 1
3
To Derive an Expression for the
Average Output Voltage of a
3-Phase Half Wave Converter with
Vector Diagram of 3 Phase Supply
Voltages
V
AN
V
CN
V
BN
120
0
120
0
120
0
RN AN
YN BN
BN CN
v v
v v
v v
=
=
=
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
sin ;
Max. Phase Voltage
2
sin
3
sin 120
2
sin
3
sin 120
sin 240
RN an m
m
YN bn m
m
BN cn m
m
m
v v V t
V
v v V t
V t
v v V t
V t
V t
e
t
e
e
t
e
e
e
= =
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
=
| |
= = +
|
\ .
= +
=
V
AN
V
CN
V
BN
120
0
120
0
120
0
120
o
conduction

( )
( )
5
6
6
5
6
6
3
sin .
2
3
cos
2
3 5
cos cos
2 6 6
m
dc
m
dc
m
dc
V
V t d t
V
V t
V
V
t
o
t
o
t
o
t
o
e e
t
e
t
t t
o o
t
+
+
+
+
(
(
=
(
(

(
(
=
(
(

(
| | | |
= + + +
| |
(
\ . \ .

}
120
o
conduction

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0
Note from the trigonometric relationship
cos cos .cos sin .sin
5 5
cos cos sin sin
6 6
3
2
co
cos 150 cos sin 150 sin
3
2
cos 30
s .cos sin sin
6 6
.cos
m
dc
m
dc
A
V
V
B A B A B
V
V
t t
o o
t
t t
o
o
o
o
t
o
+ =
(
| | | |
+
| |
(
\ . \ .
(
=
(
| | | |
+
( | |
\ . \ .

+
=

( )
( )
0
sin 30 sin o
(
(
(

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0
Note: cos 1
cos 180 30 cos sin 180 30 sin
3
2
cos 30 .cos sin 30 sin
cos 30 cos sin 30 sin
3
2
cos 30 .cos sin 30 s
80 30 cos 30
sin 180 30 sin 30
in
m
dc
m
dc
V
V
V
V
o o
t
o o
o o
t
o o
=
(
+
(
=
(
+

(
+ +
(
=
(
+

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0
3
2cos 30 cos
2
3 3
2 cos
2 2
3 3 3
3 cos cos
2 2
3
cos
2
Where 3 Max. line to line supply voltage
m
dc
m
dc
m m
dc
Lm
dc
Lm m
V
V
V
V
V V
V
V
V
V V
o
t
o
t
o o
t t
o
t
(
=

(
=
(

(
= =

=
= =
( )
max
The maximum average or dc output voltage is
obtained at a delay angle 0 and is given by
3 3
2
Where is the peak phase voltage.
And the normalized average output voltage is
m
dm
dc
m
d
dcn n
V
V V
V
V
V V
o
t
=
= =
= = cos
c
dm
V
o =
( )
( )
( )
1
5
2
6
2 2
6
1
2
The rms value of output voltage is found by
using the equation
3
sin .
2
and we obtain
1 3
3 cos 2
6 8
m
O RMS
m
O RMS
V V t d t
V V
t
o
t
o
e e
t
o
t
+
+
(
(
=
(
(

(
= +
(

}
Three Phase Full Converter
3 Phase Fully Controlled Full Wave Bridge Converter.
Known as a 6-pulse converter.
Used in industrial applications up to 120kW output
power.
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
sin ; Max. Phase Voltage
2
sin sin 120
3
2
sin sin 120
3
sin 240
RN an m m
YN bn m m
BN cn m m
m
v v V t V
v v V t V t
v v V t V t
V t
V
e
t
e e
t
e e
e
= = =
| |
= = =
|
\ .
| |
= = + = +
|
\ .
=
is the peak phase voltage of a wye-connected source.
m
( )
2
6
6
. ;
2
3 sin
6
dc O
O dc
O ab m
V V v d t
v v V t
t
o
t
o
e
t
t
e
+
+
= =
| |
= = +
|
\ .
}
The output load voltage consists of 6 voltage
pulses over a period of 2t radians, Hence the
average output voltage is calculated as
The thyristors are triggered at an interval of t / 3.
60
o
conduction

( )
2
6
mL
max
3
3 sin .
6
3 3 3
cos cos
Where V 3 Max. line-to-line supply vo
The maximum average dc output voltage is
obtained for a delay angle
ltage
3 3
0,
3
dc m
m mL
dc
m
m m
dm
dc
V V t d t
V V
V
V
V V
V V
t
o
t
o
t
e e
t
o o
t
o
t
t
+
+
| |
= +
|
\ .
= =
=
=
=
= = =
}
L
t
( )
( )
1
2
2
2
6
The normalized average dc output voltage is
cos
The rms value of the output voltage is found from
6
.
2
dc
dcn n
dm
O
O rms
V
V V
V
V v d t
t
o
t
o
o
e
t
+
+
= = =
(
(
=
(
(

}
u=-t/m
u=-t/m+o
u=0
u=t/m+o
u=t/m
o
t
t
= cos
m /
) m / sin( V
V
m
dc
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u
t
=
2
2
1
/
/
m dc
) ( d cos V V
Example: Single
Phase Full Wave
controlled rectifier
(called 2-Phase or
2-pulse rectifier)
m=2
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos sin V V
rms dc
2
2 2
o = cos V . V
rms dc
9 0
90
0
conduction
2-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
Draw
? cos V . V
rms dc
0 9 0 =
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u
t
=
3
3
3 2
1
/
/
m dc
) ( d cos V
/
V
Example: 3-Phase
Half Wave controlled
rectifier
called 3-Phase or
3-pulse rectifier)
m=3
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos sin V V
rms dc
3
3 2
o = cos V . V
rms dc
17 1
120
0
conduction
3-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
3-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
m=3
}
o + t
o + t
u u =
t
m /
m /
d cos V V
m
m
dc
2
1
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos
m
sin V
m
V
rms dc
2
}
o + t
o + t
u u
t
=
6
6
6 2
1
/
/
m dc
) ( d cos V
/
V
Example: 3-Phase
Half Wave controlled
rectifier
(called 3-Phase or
6-pulse rectifier)
m=6
o
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
= cos sin V V
rms dc
6
6 2
o = cos V . V
rms dc
35 1
60
0
conduction
6-ripples or
pulses
Each cycle
Three Phase Dual Converters
Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
Conv. 2
Inverting
o
2
> 90
0
Conv. 2
Rectifyin
g
o
2
< 90
0
Conv. 1
Rectifyin
g
o
1
< 90
0
Conv. 1
Inverting
o
1
> 90
0
3 Phase Half Controlled Bridge Converter (Semi Converter) with
3 Phase semiconverters are used in Industrial dc drive
applications up to 120kW power output.
Power factor decreases as the delay angle increases.
Power factor is better than that of 3 phase half wave
converter.
Practice Problem
For controlled RL rectifier, the source is
120V
rms
at 60Hz, R=20O, L=0.04H, delay
angle is 45
o
and extinction angle is 217
o
.
Determine
i. An expression for i(et)
ii. Average current and voltage