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Train Communication Network IEC 61375 - 3 Multifunction Vehicle Bus

This is the vehicle bus standardized in IEC 61375 for interconnecting rail vehicles

Introduction

IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Outline 1. Applications in rail vehicles 2. Physical layer 1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics 3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
Multifunction Vehicle Bus

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IEC 61375 Clause 3

Multifunction Vehicle Bus in Locomotives standard communication interface for all kind of on-board equipment

radio
diagnosis

power line

cockpit Train Bus

Vehicle Bus

brakes data rate delay medium number of stations status


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

power electronics

motor control

track signals

1'500'000 bits/second 0,001 second twisted wire pair, optical fibres up to 255 programmable stations up to 4095 simple sensors/actuators > 600 vehicles in service in 1998
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1999 September, HK

IEC Train Communication Network

IEC 61375 Clause 3

Multifunction Vehicle Bus in Coaches passenger information

doors

light

Train Bus

Vehicle Bus air conditioning seat reservation power brakes

covered distance:

> 50 m for a 26 m long vehicle < 200 m for a train set

diagnostics and passenger information require relatively long, but infrequent messages IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Physical Media

OGF EMD ESD

optical fibres shielded, twisted wires with transformer coupling wires or backplane with or without galvanic isolation

(2000 m) (200 m) (20 m)

Media are directly connected by repeaters (signal regenerators) All media operate at the same speed of 1,5 Mbit/s.
devices star coupler

optical links rack optical links rack twisted wire segment sensors

IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Covered Distance The MVB can span several vehicles in a multiple unit train configuration:

Train Bus
node repeater

MVB

devices

devices with short distance bus

The number of devices under this configuration amounts to 4095.


MVB can serve as a train bus in trains with fixed configuration, up to a distance of: > 200 m (EMD medium or ESD with galvanic isolation) or > 2000 m (OGF medium).

IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Topography
Bus Administrator

Node
EMD Segment

Train Bus

Device

Device

Device

Device

Terminator ESD Segment section Repeater


Device Device Device

Repeater

OGL link Repeater ESD Segment


Device Device Device Device

all MVB media operate at same speed, segments are connected by repeaters.
IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Outline 1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer 1. ESD (Electrical, RS 485) 2. EMD (Transformer-coupled) 3. OGF (Optical Glass Fibres) 3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

ESD (Electrical Short Distance) RS485 Interconnects devices over short distances ( 20m) without galvanic separation Based on proven RS-485 technology (Profibus) Main application: connect devices within the same cabinet.
device 1 terminator/ biasing +5V Ru (390) Rm (150 ) Rd (390 ) GND
Data_P equipotential line Bus_GND

TxS RxS

device 2.. n-1 TxS RxS

device N TxS RxS

terminator/ biasing
+5V Ru (390) Rm (150 )

Data_N

Rd (390 )

segment length

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IEC 61375 Clause 3

ESD Device with Galvanic Isolation


shield connected to connector casing optocouplers

protection circui t +5V RS 485 transcei ve r

galvanic barrier
RxS

RxS'

male

TxS

TxS' TxF'

protective earth

+5V el

0V el

TxF

femal e

+Vcc

Data GND

powe r

cable
shield connected to connector casing device cas ing connected to supply ground DC/DC converter

IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

ESD Connector for Double-Line Attachment


A.Bus_GND
B.Bus_GND B.Bus_5V A.Bus_5V 4 3 A.Data_N A.Data_P B.Data_P B.Data_N

reserved (optional TxE)

1 male

1 female

Line_A

Line_A

Line_B

cable

Line_A Line_B

Line_B

Line_A Line_B
10

cable

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

1999 September, HK

EMD (Electrical Medium Distance) - Single Line Attachment


Connects up to 32 devices over distances of 200 m. Transformer coupling to provide a low cost, high immunity galvanic isolation. Standard 120 Ohm cable, IEC 1158-2 line transceivers can be used. 2 x 9-pin Sub-D connector Main application: street-car and mass transit
device
bus controller transceiver transformer

shield

bus section 1

bus section 2
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IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

IEC 61375 Clause 3

EMD Device with Double Line Attachment device


Bus_Controller

transceiver A
A.Data_P A.Data_N B.Data_P B.Data_N

transceiver B

Connector_1

A1
1

B1

B2

A2
1

Connector_2

A1. Data_P A1. Data_N

B1. Data_P B1. Data_N

B2. Data_N B2. Data_P

A1. Data_N A1. Data_P

Line_A Line_B

Line_A Line_B

Carrying both redundant lines in the same cable eases installation it does not cause unconsidered common mode failures in the locomotive environment (most probable faults are driver damage and bad contact) IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

EMD Connectors for Double-Line Attachment


Conn ector_1 (male) Zt.A male 1 A1. Data_ P Li ne_A 2 A1. Data_ N 3 4 B1. Data_ P 5 B1.Data_N Li ne_B

cable

Line_A

A.Term_P A.Term_N

6 7 8 9

terminator connector
5 9 4

shields contacts case


3

8 7

Line_B

B.Term_N B.Term_P

9 8 7 6

5 B1.Data_N 4 B1. Data_ P

Li ne_B

2 6

1
3 2 A1. Data_ N Li ne_A 1 A1. Data_ P

Zt.B

femal e

Conn ector_1 (femal e)

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

EMD Shield Grounding Concept

device

device inter-section connectors

device

terminator shield possible s hield discontinuity device ground device ground inter-device impedance

terminator

inter-device impedance

Shields are connected directly to the device case Device cases should be connected to ground whenever feasible

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

OGF (Optical Glass Fibre) Covers up to 2000 m Proven 240m silica clad fibre Main application: locomotive and critical EMC environment
Star Coupler
wired-or electrical media opto-electrical transceiver

to other device or star coupler

to other device or star coupler

fibre pair

Rack

ESD segment

device

device

device

device

device

device

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

OGF to ESD adapter


MVBC
RxDA TxD TxE RxDB

A.Data_P

A.Data_P

A.5V A.0V

B.5V B.0V

RS-485 transceiver

fibre-optical transceivers
to sta r coupler A to sta r coupler B

from star couple r A

from star couple r B

Double-line ESD devices can be connected to fibre-optical links by adapters IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Repeater: the Key Element A repeater is used at a transition from one medium to another.
bus administrator slave slave slave slave (redundant) bus administrator

repeater
decoder encoder

ESD segment (RS 485)

EMD segment (transformer-coupled)

decoder

encoder

The repeater:
decodes and reshapes the signal (knowing its shape) recognizes the transmission direction and forward the frame detects and propagates collisions

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

duplicated segment Line_A Line_B

MVB Repeater
repeater decoder encoder decoder

direction recogniser
decoder encoder decoder

Line_A (single-thread optical link)

Line_B (unused for singlethread)

recognize the transmission direction and forward the frame decode and reshape the signal (using a priori knowledge about ist shape) jabber-halt circuit to isolate faulty segments detect and propagate collisions increase the inter-frame spacing to avoid overlap can be used with all three media appends the end delimiter in the direction fibre to transformer, remove it the opposite way handles redundancy (transition between single-thread and double-thread) IEC 61375 Clause 3 19 IEC Train Communication Network
Multifunction Vehicle Bus
1999 September, HK

MVB Outline

1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer


1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics 3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Class 1 Device A B bus controller

board bus analog or binary input/ output

MVB redundant bus pairs (ESD)

RS 485 drivers/ receivers

device address register device status

(monomaster)

Class 1 or field devices are simple connections to sensors or actuators. They do not require a micro-controller. They do not participate in message data communication. The Bus Controller manages both the input/output and the bus.
IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Class 2-3 Device A B private RAM traffic store MVB redundant bus pairs (ESD)
RS 485 drivers/ receivers

application processor

EPROM
Bus Controller shared local RAM device status

local input/ output

Class 2 and higher devices have a processor and may exchange messages. Class 2 devices are configurable I/O devices (but not programmable) The Bus Controller communicates with the Application Processor through a shared memory, the traffic store, which holds typically 256 ports. IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Class 4-5 Device

Class 4 devices present the functionality of a Programming and Test station Class 4 devices are capable of becoming Bus Administrators. To this effect, they hold additional hardware to read the device status of the other devices and to supervise the configuration. They also have a large number of ports, so they can supervise the process data transmission of any other device. Class 5 devices are gateways with several link layers (one or more MVB, WTB).

The device classes are distinguished by their hardware structure.

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVBC - bus controller ASIC


duplicated electrical or optical transmitters A Manchester and CRC encoder 12 bit device address

CPU parallel bus to traffic store

16x16 Tx buffer

Clock, Main Timers & Control Sink Time Unit Supervision

A19..1

address

B
A
JTAG interface

D15..0
16x16 Rx buffer

data

DUAL Manchester and CRC decoders B duplicated electrical or optical receivers

Class 1 logic

Traffic Store Control & Arbiter

control

Automatic frame generation and analysis Adjustable reply time-out Up to 4096 ports for process data 16KByte.. 1MByte traffic store Freshness supervision for process data In Class 1 mode: up to 16 ports Bit-wise forcing Time and synchronization port

Bus administrator functions Bookkeeping of communication errors Hardware queueing for message data Supports 8 and 16-bit processors Supports big and lirttle endians 24 MHz clock rate HCMOS 0.8 m technology 100 pin QFP IEC 61375 Clause 3

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MVB Bus Interface The interface between the bus and the application is a shared memory, the Traffic Memory , where Process Data are directly accessible to the application.
Application processor Traffic Store

0..4095 Logical Ports (256 typical) for Process data

process data base

6 bus management ports

8 physical ports

messages packets and bus supervision

bus controller

2 message ports

MVB IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Outline

1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer

1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics


3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept

8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Manchester Encoding

data clock frame

110 100010 111110 1

signal 0 123 45 67 8
9-bit Start Delimiter frame data 8-bit check sequence end delimiter

The Manchester-coded frame is preceded by a Start Delimiter containing non-Manchester signals to provide transparent synchronization.

IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Frame Delimiters Different delimiters identify master and slave frames:

Master Frame Delimiter


0
start bit

active state
idle state Slave Frame Delimiter 0
start bit

active state idle state This prevents mistaking the next master frame when a slave frame is lost. IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Frames Formats

The MVB distinguishes two kinds of frames:


master frames issued by the master 9 bits 4 16 (33) MSD F 12
address

8 CS

MSD = Master Start Delimiter (9 bits) CS = Check Sequence (8 bits) F = F_code (4 bits)

slave frames sent in response to master frames 8 16 9 16 bits SSD = Slave Start Delimiter (9 (33) SSD data CS bits) 9 32 bits 8 32 SSD data CS (49) 9 64 bits 8 64 SSD data CS (81) 9 64 bits 8 64 bits 8 128 SSD CS CS data data (153) 64 bits 8 64 bits 8 64 bits 8 64 bits 8 9 256 SSD data CS data CS data CS data CS (297) useful (total) size in bits

IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Distance Limits The distance is limited by the maximum allowed reply delay of 42,7 s between a master frame and a slave frame.
repeater repeater

master
remotest data source repeater delay propagation delay (6 s/km) max repeater delay

t_ms < 42,7s

t_ms

t_source

t_s t_sm

repeater delay

The reply delay time-out can be raised up to 83,4 s for longer distances (with reduced troughput).

time

distance

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Telegrams Process Data


Master Frame (Request) port address 4 bits 12 bits
F= 0..7

Slave Frame (Response) dataset time 16, 32, 64, 128 or 256 bits of Process Data

Message Data
Master Frame source device 4 bits 12 bits
F= 12 destination device
prot ocol

256 bits of Message Data source size FN FF ON OF MTC transport data device final node final function origin node origin function time message tranport control

decoded by hardware

Supervisory Data
Master Frame port F= 8-15 address 4 bits 12 bits Slave Frame

16 bits

time

Telegrams are distinguished by the F_code in the Master Frame IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

Source-addressed broadcast

Phase1: The bus master broadcasts the identifier of a variable to be transmitted:


bus master

subscribed device
sink

subscribed device
source

subscribed devices
sink sink devices (slaves) bus

variable identifier

Phase 2: The device which sources that variable responds with a slave frame containing the value, all devices subscribed as sink receive that frame.
subscribed device
bus master sink

subscribed device
source

subscribed devices
sink sink devices (slaves) bus

variable value

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IEC 61375 Clause 3

Traffic Memory

The bus and the application are (de)coupled by a shared memory, the Traffic Memory, where process variables are directly accessible to the application.
Application Processor Associative memory Traffic Memory

Process Data Base

two pages ensure that read and write can occur at the same time
Bus Controller

bus IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

Restriction in simultaneous access


starts

t1
ends

t2 time

writer reader 1 (slow) reader 2


page0

error !

traffic store
page1 page 1 becomes valid page 0 becomes valid

there may be no semaphores to guard access to a traffic store (real-time) there may be only one writer for a port, but several readers a reader must read the whole port before the writer overwrites it again therefore, the processor must read ports with interrupt off. IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

Operation of the traffic memory In content-addressed ("source-addressed") communication, messages are broadcast, the receiver select the data based on a look-up table of relevant messages. For this, an associative memory is required. Since address size is small (12 bits), the decoder is implemented by a memory block:

port index table


processor
0 1 2 4 0 0 0 1

storage page 0
data(4) data(5) data (4094) data(4092) 0

page 1
data(4) data(5)

12-bit Address

5 6 7 voids 4091 4092 4093 4094 4095

2 0 0 voids 0 4 0 3 0

data (4094) data(4092) 0

bus IEC Train Communication Network


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MVB F_code Summary


Master Frame F_code address 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 request source Slave Frame size 16 32 64 128 256 response destination

logical

Process_Data

reserved reserved reserved

single device subscribed as source

Process_Data (application -dependent)

all devices subscribed as sink

8
9 10 11 12 13 14

all devices Master_Transfer


device device device device group device General_Event reserved reserved Message_Data Group_Event Single_Event

Master
>= 1devices single device >= 1devices single device

16
16 256 16 16

Master_Transfer
Event_Identifier

Master
Master

Message_Data Event_Identifier Event_Identifier

selected device Master Master

15

device

Device_Status

single device

16

Device_Status

Master or monitor
IEC 61375 Clause 3

IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

MVB Outline 1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer 1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics 3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
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Master Operation

The Master performs four tasks: 1) Periodic Polling of the port addresses according to its Poll List

2) Attend Aperiodic Event Requests


3) Scan Devices to supervise configuration 4) Pass Mastership orderly (last period in turn)
basic period sporadic phase periodic phase
supervisory phase

basic period sporadic phase periodic phase


supervisory phase

event phase

event phase

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 SD

? ? ? ?

1 2

9 SD

? ? ? ? EV guard phase

1 2 time

guard phase

The Administrator is loaded with a configuration file before becoming Master IEC Train Communication Network
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Bus Traffic

State Variable State of the Plant Response in 1..200 ms


... commands, position, speed

Messages Events of the Plant Response at human speed: > 0.5 s


Diagnostics, event recorder Initialisation, calibration

Periodic Transmission Spurious data losses will be compensated at the next cycle
Basic Period

On-Demand Transmission Flow control & error recovery protocol for catching all events
Basic Period event

Periodic Data

Sporadic Data

time

IEC Train Communication Network


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MVB Medium Access basic period periodic phase


1 2 3 4 5 6

basic period periodic phase


1 2 7 8 9 10

sporadic phase
? ? ? ?

sporadic phase
? ! ? ?
1 2 3

events ? guard time

events ?

time
event guard data time

individual period
A basic period is divided into a periodic and a sporadic phase. During the periodic phase, the master polls the periodic data in sequence. Periodic data are polled at their individual period (a multiple of the basic period). Between periodic phases, the Master continuously polls the devices for events. Since more than one device can respond to an event poll, a resolution procedure selects exactly one event. IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Bus Administrator Configuration

period 0
1 ms

period 1
1 ms

period 2
1 ms 4 ms

period 3
1 ms

period 4
Tspo

Tspo
1 2.0 4.0 1 2.1 4.1

Tspo
1 2.0 8.2

Tspo
1 2.1

1 2.0 4.0

time 2 ms begin of turn 2 ms cycle 2

The Poll List is built knowing: the list of the port addresses, size and individual period the reply delay of the bus the list of known devices (for the device scan the list of the bus administrators (for mastership transfer) IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Poll List Configuration


macroperiod guard
>350s T_spo

(8 T_bp shown, in reality 1024 T_bp)

2 BP datasets 2 BP datasets 1 BP datasets


2.1

4.0 8.1 2.0 2.1

4.2

4.0 2.1 2.0 2.1

4.2

4.0 2.1 2.0

8.1 2.1

2.0

2.0

1
period 7

1
period 0

1
period 1

1
period 2

1
period 3

1
period 4

1
period 5

1
period 6

1
period 7

1
0

1
1

The algorithm which builds the poll table spreads the cycles evenly over the macroperiod
IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

basic period

MVB Event Resolution (1)

To scan events, the Master issues a General Event Poll (Start Poll) frame.

If no device responds, the Master keeps on sending Event Polls until a device responds or until the guard time before the next periodic phase begins.
A device with a pending event returns an Event Identifier Response. If only one device responds, the Master reads the Event Identifier (no collision). The Master returns that frame as an Event Read frame to read the event data
Start Event Poll (parameters and setup) Event Identifier Response from slave Event Identifier returned as master frame Event data

MSD 9 EMET

- CS SSD 12

1234

CS

MSD 12

1234

CS

SSD

xxxx xxxx

CS

Event Poll telegram

Event Read telegram


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time
IEC 61375 Clause 3

IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

MVB Event Resolution (2) If several devices respond to an event poll, the Master detects the collision and starts event resolution
start poll and parameter setup
any?

arbitration round group poll individual poll


x101

event reading A D time

xxx1

xx11

0101

telegram collision silence collision valid event frame

The devices are divided into groups on the base of their physical addresses. The Master first asks the devices with an odd address if they request an event. If only one response If there is no response, If collision keeps on, the comes, the master returns the master asks devices master considers the 2nd bit of the device address. that frame to poll the event. with an even address. IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Event Resolution (3) Example with a 3-bit device address: 001 and 101 compete start arbitration general poll width of group address n=0 collision no event x00 xx0 xx1 n=1 n=2

silence

xxx

silence
silence x10 collision 000 EA 100 EA 010 EA 110 EA 001 EA 101 EA 011 EA x01 silence

collision x11

collision
111 EA individual poll event read time
IEC 61375 Clause 3

even devices IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

odd devices
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1999 September, HK

MVB Time Distribution

At fixed intervals, the Master broadcasts the exact time as a periodic variable. When receiving this variable, the bus controllers generate a pulse which can resynchronize a slave clock or generate an interrupt request.

Bus master Periodic list Slave Master clock clock

Application processor 1
Int Req

Application processor 2
Int Req

Application processor 3
Int Req

Ports

Slave clock

Ports

Slave clock

Ports

Bus controller MVB

Bus controller

Bus controller

Bus controller

Sync port address

Sync port variable

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MVB Slave Clock Synchronization

Master Slave clock clock

Slave clocks

Slave clocks

MVB 1 Bus administrator 1 Slave devices

Bus administrator 2 Synchronizer

MVB 2

The clock does not need to be generated by the Master. The clock can synchronize sampling within 100 s across several bus segments.

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Outline

1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer


1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics 3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Fault-tolerance Concept Transmission Integrity MVB rather stops than provides false data. The probability for an undetected transmission error (residual error rate) is low enough to transmit most safety-critical data. This is achieved through an extensive error detection scheme Transmission Availability

MVB continues operation is spite of any single device error. In particular, configurations without single point of failure are possible.
This is achieved through a complete duplication of the physical layer. Graceful Degradation The failure of a device affects only that device, but not devices which do not depend on its data (retro-action free). Configurability Complete replication of the physical layer is not mandatory. When requirements are slackened, single-thread connections may be used and mixed with dual-thread ones. IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Basic Medium Redundancy The bus is duplicated for availability (not for integrity)
address data control

parallel bus logic send register encoder selector signal quality report receive register bus controller

decoder decoder
A transmitters B A B receivers

bus line B bus line A

A frame is transmitted over both channels simultaneously. The receiver receives from one channel and monitors the other. Switchover is controlled by signal quality and frame overlap. One frame may go lost during switchover 50 IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Medium Redundancy

The physical medium may be fully duplicated to increase availability.


Principle: send on both, receive on one, supervise the other device BA repeater
optical link A

AB

device

repeater

optical link B

device

repeater

repeater

device

electrical segment X

electrical segment Y

Duplicated and non-duplicated segments may be connected IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Double-Line Fibre Layout star coupler A opto links A device rack copper bus A copper bus B redundant Bus Administrator star coupler B

A B

A B

Bus Administrator opto links B

The failure of one device cannot prevent other devices from communicating. Optical Fibres do not retro-act.
IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Master Redundancy A centralized bus master is a single point of failure. To increase availability, the task of the bus master may be assumed by one of several Bus Administrators

The current master is selected by token passing:


token passing

bus administrator 1

bus administrator 2

bus administrator 3

current bus master

Bus slave device slave device slave device slave device slave device slave device slave device

If a bus administrator detects no activity, it enters an arbitration procedure. If it wins, it takes over the master's role and creates a token. To check the good function of all administrators, the current master offers mastership to the next administrator in the list every 4 seconds. IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Outline

1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer 1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics 3. Device Classes 4. Frames and Telegrams 5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Transmission Integrity (1) 1) Manchester II encoding Double signal inversion necessary to cause an undetected error, memoryless code
Clock Data Frame
violations 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1

Line Signal
Start Delimiter Manchester II symbols

2) Signal quality supervision Adding to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the transmission, signal quality supervision rejects suspect frames.
125ns reference edge BT0.5 BT1.0 BT1.5 125ns 125ns BT = bit time = 666 ns time

IEC Train Communication Network


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Transmission Integrity (2) 3) A check octet according to TC57 class FT2 for each group of up to 64 bits, provides a Hamming Distance of 4 (8 if Manchester coding is considered): -15 (Residual Error Rate < 10 under standard disturbances)
Master Frame

16 (33) useful (total) size in bits

9 MSD

size in bits 4 12 F address

8 CS

MD = Master frame Delimiter CS = Check Sequence 8 bits

Slave Frame

9 16 (33) SSD 9 32 (49) 64 (81) 128 (153) 256 (297) SSD 9 SSD

16 2 bytes 32 4 bytes

8 CS SD = Slave frame Delimiter 8 CS 8 CS DATA 64 repeat 1, 2 or 4 x

64 8 bytes

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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Transmission Integrity (3) 4) Different delimiters for address and data against single frame loss:
respond within 1.3 s < t < 4.0 s ms MSD ADDRESS a CS SSD DATA (a) respond within 4 s < t sm<1.3 ms CS MSD ADDRESS b CS time t mm 1,3 ms

5) Response time supervision against double frame loss:


> 22 s > 22 s

MSD ADDRESS a CS

SSD DATA (a) CS

MSD ADDRESS b CS

SSD DATA (b) CS

time
accept if 0.5s < t_mm < 42.7 s

6) Configuration check: size at source and sink ports must be same as frame size. IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Safety Concept Data Integrity Very high data integrity, but nevertheless insufficient for safety applications (signalling) Increasing the Hamming Distance further is of no use since data falsification becomes more likely in a device than on the bus. Data Transfer critical data transmitted periodically to guarantee timely delivery. obsolete data are discarded by sink time supervision. error in the poll scan list do not affect safety. Device Redundancy Redundant plant inputs A and B transmitted by two independent devices. Diverse A and B data received by two independent devices and compared. The output is disabled if A and B do not agree within a specified time. Availability Availability is increased by letting the receiving devices receive both A and B. The application is responsible to process the results and switchover to the healthy device in case of discrepancy. IEC Train Communication Network
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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Integer Set-up

poll

A B
individual period
Bus Administrator

A B

time

redundant vehicle bus (for availability only) input devices output devices

A
confinement
application responsibility

spreader device (application dependent)

fail-safe comparator and enabling logic

redundant input IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

redundant, integer output


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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Integer and Available Set-up


poll

A B
redundant bus administrator individual period

A B

time redundant bus administrator

redundant vehicle bus (for availability) input devices output devices

A C

A C

comparator and enabling logic

confinement spreader device (application dependent)

B
available and integer output
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1999 September, HK

switchover logic or comparator (application dependent)

redundant input IEC Train Communication Network


Multifunction Vehicle Bus

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Outline

1. Applications in vehicles 2. Physical layer 1. Electrical RS 485 2. Middle-Distance 3. Fibre Optics 3. Device Classes

4. Frames and Telegrams


5. Medium Allocation 6. Clock Synchronization 7. Fault-tolerance concept 8. Integrity Concept 9. Summary IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Summary Topography: Medium: bus (copper), active star (optical fibre) copper: twisted wire pair optical: fibres and active star coupler Covered distance: OGF: 2000 m, total 4096 devices EMD: 200 m copper with transformer-coupling ESD: 20 m copper (RS485) Communication chip dedicated IC available none (class 1), class 2 uses minor processor capacity Processor participation Interface area on board 20 cm2 (class 1), 50 cm2 (class 2) RAM, EPROM , drivers. Additional logic fully duplicated for availability Medium redundancy: Manchester II + delimiters Signalling: 1,5 Mb/s Gross data rate typical 10 s (<43 s) Response Time 4096 physical devices, 4096 logical ports per bus Address space Frame size (useful data) 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 bits Integrity CRC8 per 64 bits, HD = 8, protected against sync slip IEC Train Communication Network
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1999 September, HK

IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Link Layer Interface

Real-Time Protocols Link Layer Interface Upper Link Layer LP LM LS management station

process data Traffic Store

message data

supervisory data

Lower Link Layer

slave Process Data Message Data Supervisory Data

telegram handling frame coding

master polling arbitration mastership transfer

Physical Layer

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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB Components Bus Controllers: BAP 15 (Texas Instruments, obsolete) MVBC01 (VLSI, in production, includes master logic MVBC02 (E2S, in production, includes transformer coupling) Repeaters: REGA (in production) MVBD (in production, includes transformer coupling) Medium Attachment Unit: OGF: fully operational and field tested (8 years experience) ESD: fully operational and field tested (with DC/DC/opto galvanic separation) EMD: lab tested, first vehicles equipped Stack: Link Layer stack for Intel 186, i196, i960, 166, 167, Motorola 68332, under DOS, Windows, VRTX,... Tools: Bus Administrator configurator Bus Monitor, Download, Upload, remote settings IEC Train Communication Network
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MVB Throughput (raw data)

transmission delay [ms]


0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

IEC Fieldbus @ 1,0 Mbit/s

MVB @ 1,5 Mbit/s

IEC Fieldbus @ 2,5 Mbit/s


0.2 0.1

16

32

48

64

80

96

112

128

144

160

176

192

208

224

240

256

dataset size in bits


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IEC 61375 Clause 3

MVB versus IEC 61158-2 Frames

IEC 61158-2 frame


Preamble Start Delimiter Data PhSDU FCS 16 bits End Delimiter Spacing 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 N+ N- 1 0 N+ N- 0 1 N+ N- N+ N- 1 0 1 v v v v

MVB frame
Start Delimiter 0 N- N+ 1 N- N+ 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 N+ N- 0 N+ NData Data 8 bits FCS FCS End Delimiter v v v v

Master Frame

Slave Frame

IEC 61158 frames have a lesser efficiency (-48%) then MVB frames To compensate it, a higher speed (2,5 Mbit/s) would be needed.

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IEC Train Communication Network


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1999 September, HK

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