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Plastic State

Setting State

Hardening State

Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to chemical process known as Hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a stone like material.

Mix Design is the term used to define how

the concrete will be mixed and how it will be placed to form the structure. Batching is the process of measuring concrete mix ingredients either by volume or by mass and introducing them to mixture. Traditionally Batching is done by volume.

GRADE 15 20

RATIO 1:3:6 1:2:4

CEMENT (in bags) 13 18

SAND (in cubes) 0.53 0.50

METAL (in cubes) 0.92 0.88






1400 to 16000C

Coarse aggregates Above 5mm dia. E.g-Gravel

Fine aggregates Below 5mm dia. E.g-Sand

selection of aggregates is an important process. consideration when selecting aggregates grading durability particle shape and surface texture unit weights and voids

Accelerators Retarders Plasticizers Water reducing

Accelerators are added to concrete either to increase the rate of early strength development or to shorten the time of setting or both Usage of Accelerators are depend on Temperature of the mix


slow down the hydration of cement. In simple words is decrease the setting time of the concrete.

The mixing operation consists of rotation and stirring, the ingredients of the concrete to uniform mass. This uniformity must not be disturbed by the process of discharging from the mixer. There are several types of Concrete Mixers are used to mix concrete. Some of them are Batch Mixers, Tilting Drum Mixers, Pan Type Mixers & Continuous Mixers.

The efficiency of the Concrete Mixer can be measure by the viability variability of the samples from the mix. Mixing time depends on the type and size of the Mixer and on the speed of rotating. Capacity of the Mixers are varying from 1 Cubic Yard to 10 Cubic Yards.

If instead of being batched and mixed on site, concrete is delivered for placing from a Central Plant. Such Central Plants are known as Batching Plants. The concrete produced at Batching Plants are normally referred as Ready Mix Concrete or Pre-Mixed Concrete. Ready mix concrete produce in such Batching Plants are transported to the site by using Truck Mixers.

This type of concrete is used extensively when constructing Multi storied structures and offers numerous advantages in comparison with other methods of manufacture. Some of the advantages are as follows. 1. Close quality control of batching which reduces the variability of the desired properties of hardened concrete. 2. Use on congested sites where there is little space for a mixing plant and aggregate stock pile. 3. Use of Truck Mixers to ensure care in transportation, thus prevent segregation and maintain workability. 4. Convenience when small quantities of concrete or intermittent placing is required.

There are TWO major Tests are used to control the quality of the concrete. They are
Slump Test Cube Tests.

Slump Test is used to control the Workability of the concrete. Cube Test is used to ascertain the required strength of the concrete.

The operation of placing ensures the requirement of Strength, Impermeability and Durability of harden concrete in the actual structure. As far as placing is concerned, the main objective is to deposit the concrete as close as possible to its final position so that segregation is avoided and the concrete is fully compacted. The aim of the good concrete placing can be stated as, is to get the concrete into position at a speed and in a condition, that allow it to be compacted properly.

Once the concrete has been placed , it is ready to be compacted. The purpose of compaction is to get rid of the air voids that trapped in loose concrete. It is important to compact the concrete fully because air voids reduce the strength of the concrete. Air voids increase concretes permeability. That in turns reduces its durability. If the concrete is not dense and impermeable, it will not be watertight.

Moisture and air are more likely to penetrate to the reinforcement causing it to rust. Honey Combs may occur due to the air voids. To compact concrete you apply energy to it so that mix becomes more fluid. Air trapped in it can then rise to the top and escape. As a result, the concrete become consolidated and left with a good dense material

RODDING: Rodding is a manual technique and are only suitable for work of foundations and columns. VIBRATION: is the quickest and best method to compact concreter. Porker Vibrators are used for this purpose. Porkers with diameter ranging 25 and 75 mm are readily available and these are suitable for most reinforced concrete work.

External Vibration

The length of time it takes for a Porker vibrator to compact concrete fully depends on:
The WORKABILITY of the concrete: The less workable the mix, the longer it must be vibrated. Bigger Vibrators do faster job in compaction. The depth of the concrete: Thick sections of the concrete take longer for compaction.

To achieve proper placing and compaction following rules should be kept in mind.
The Concrete should placed in uniform layers not in large heaps or slopping layers. The rate of Placing and of Compaction should be equal. On no account should water ever be added to concrete in setting. Each layer should be fully compacted before placing the next one, and each subsequent layer should be placed whilst the under lying layer is still plastic so that monolithic construction is achieved. Collision between concrete and formwork or reinforcement should be avoided

Care needs to be taken to properly CURE concrete and to achieve best Strength and Hardness. This happens after Concrete has been placed. Cement requires a moist, controlled environment to gain strength and harden fully. Cement paste Hardened over a time and in around 3 weeks , over 90% of the final strength is typically reached , though it may continue to strengthen for decades.