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EXPERIMENT NO-6

AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:


VI Characteristics of a BJT and Analysis of Load Line.

OBJECTIVE:
i. Find out VBE and IB for a particular VCE and draw the I/P characteristics curve between VBE v/s IB . ii. Find out VCE and IC for a particular IB and draw the O/P characteristics curve between VCE v/s IC.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL. NO. COMPONENTS REQUIRED SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY

1. 2. 3. 4.

Micro Lab Kit DC Regulated Power Supply Multimeter Transistor

---(0-30 V) ---(BC-548/2N3904)

1 2 3 1

5.
6.

Resistors
Connecting wires

1 K and 100 K
----

1 each
As per required

THEORY:

The BJT is a three terminal device and it comes in two different types:-the npn BJT and the pnp BJT. The three terminals of the BJT are: the Base(B ),the Collector(C) and the Emitter(E).

Three different types of voltages are involved in the description of transistors and they are:(a)Transistor supply voltages: VCC , VBB (b)Transistor terminal voltages: VC , VB, VE (c)Voltage across transistor junctions: VBE, VCE, VCB

Transistor V-I Characteristics: For the common-emitter configuration the output characteristics are a plot of the output current(IC) versus output voltage(VCE) for a range of values of input current (IB).

The characteristics of each region of operation are:(a) CUTOFF REGION:(i) Base-emitter junction is reverse biased. (ii) No current flow. (b) SATURATION REGION:(i) Base-emitter junction is forward biased. (ii) Collector-base junction is forward biased. (iii)VCE < VBE (c) ACTIVE REGION:(i) Base-emitter junction is forward biase (ii) Collector-base junction is reverse biased (iii) VBE < VCE < VCC

The input characteristics are plot of of the input current(IB) versus the input voltage(VBE) for a range of values of output voltage(VCE).

In the input characteristics curve,when VBE becomes zero ,then IB will be zero, since under these conditions both emitter and collector junctions will be short-circuited.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
i. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. ii. Fix the VCE voltage at 5 volt and 10 volt. iii. Vary the VBE voltage and note down the current base(IB) of the transistor for each VCE. iv. Draw the input characteristics curve of BJT. v. Fix the IB current at 10A, 15A and 20 A. vi. Vary the VCE voltage and note down the current through collector(IC) of the transistor for each IB. vii. Draw the output characteristics curve of BJT.

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS CURVE OF BJT:

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS CURVE OF BJT:

OBSERVATION: INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:


SL NO. VCE IN VOLT.(CONSTAN T) VBB IN VOLT VBE IN VOLT IB IN A

OBSERVATION: OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:


SL NO. IB IN A (CONSTANT) VCC IN VOLT VCE IN VOLT IC IN mA

PRECAUTION:
i. Short circuit should be avoided. ii. Handle the materials carefully.

CONCLUSION: