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DEPARTMENT OF ECE AND EIE ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH (Faculty of Engineering) SIKSHA O ANUSANDHAN UNIVERSITY

(Declared u/s. 3 of the UGC Act. 1956) Jagamohan Nagar, Jagamara, Bhubaneswar 751030.

RULES & REGULATIONS


Come in Time with proper dress code. Keep your Bags at proper place and then go to your working table with

your Rough, Fair Records & Stationeries (Pen, Pencils, Eraser, tracing papers , Graph papers etc.) After completion of the demonstration, prepare the requirement of apparatus, components etc in tabular form in your rough record, and then issue those from the Lab. Staff. In case of any problem, ask for assistance from teachers / lab staff. Perform experiments at your assigned table and do not move around which may create disturbances to others. After completion of your experiment, get the rough copy and fair copy along with other results signed by the respective lab instructors and the concerned faculty. The apparatus has to be returned in the same condition as issued after completion of the experiment. Wearing shoes is mandatory for safety against electrical shock.

PREPARING YOUR ROUGH COPY


The first page of the rough copy should contain the List of

experiments. For each experiments the following steps should be maintained.. 1) Name of the experiments with Date 2) Aim of the experiments 3) Objectives 4) Apparatus Required 5) Circuit Diagram 6) Calculation 7) Observation(Tabulation/Graph/Tracing) 8) Conclusion

HOW TO PREPARE YOUR FAIR RECORD


Your fair record should be a hard bind one, that should be

covered and named with proper registration number. For each experiments the following steps should be maintained. 1) Name of the experiments with Date 2) Aim of the experiments 3) Objectives 4) Apparatus Required 5) Circuit Diagram 6) Brief Theory 7) Procedure 8) Calculation 9) Observation(tabulation/Graph/Tracing) 10) Precautions 11) Conclusion

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. 2.

Familiarization with different types of electronic components:Resistors, Capacitors, Semiconductors Diodes, Transistors and IC. Familiarization with the use of Oscilloscope, Function Generator, Digital multimeter and DC Power Supply. VI characteristics of a PN junction diode for forward and reverse biasing. Determination of D.C. and A.C. resistance. Diode as a half wave and full wave rectifier. Calculation of D.C. current and ripple factor for resistive load and capacitive load. Diode as a Clamper and Clipper Circuit. VI Characteristics of a BJT and draw the Load Line.

3.

4. 5. 6.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
CE BJT amplifier. Measurement of Linearity characteristics and Gain of a 1 KHz Signal. 8. OPAMP as a summing amplifier and differentiator. 9. Determine the Truth Table of AND, OR, NAND, NOR and EXOR Gates. 10. Study of multiplexer and de-multiplexer ICs. 11. Use of Oscilloscope for measurement of phase, frequency and amplitude of a Signal. 12. Fabrication of a simple RC coupled amplifier to operate in audio band. Measure its gain- frequency response. Study the effect of series feedback. NOTE: Out of above 12 experiments one has to perform atleast 10 experiments.
7.

EXPERIMENT-01
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT: Familiarize with different types of electronics componentsResistors, Capacitors, Semiconductors Diodes, Transistors and IC. OBJECTIVES: Familiarity with various types of electronics components and Devices. Identification of electronic components symbolically and physically. Measurement of resistance using colour code technique and capacitance by digital multimeter. Testing of Semiconductor Diode and Transistor using Digital multimeter. Identification of IC pins.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. Active and Passive components. a. Fixed and Variable Resistors.
b. Electrolyte and ceramic capacitors. c. Cristal diode, Zener diode and LED. d. BJT & FET. f. Analog and Digital IC.

ii. Digital multimeter.

CLASIFICATION OF ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS

CLASIFICATION OF ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS

IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS SYMBOLICALLY AND PHYSICALLY


Name of the Components Fixed Resistors Symbols 3D Pictures

Variable Resistors

Fixed Capacitors Variable Capacitor

IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS SYMBOLICALLY AND PHYSICALLY


Name of the Components
Fixed Inductors variable Inductors

Symbols

3D Pictures

Crystal Diode

Zener Diode

IDENTIFICATION OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS SYMBOLICALLY AND PHYSICALLY


Name of the Components LED Transistor Symbols 3D Pictures

FET

Integrated circuit

DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESISTOR WITH WATTAGE

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CAPACITORS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUCTORS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIODES

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANSISTORS

RESISTOR :
A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor.

TYPES OF RESISTOR:

1. Fixed Value Resistor


2. Variable Resistor or Potentiometer :

FIXED RESISTOR:
Fixed resistors are those types of resistors whose value is fixed already while manufacturing and cannot be changed during its usage.

1 .CARBON COMPOSITION:
These types of resistors are made by a composition of Carbon

Particles which are held together by a binding resign. The proportion of carbon particles and resign used determines the value of the resistor. At both ends of the composition a Metal Cap with a small rod of tin is attached to solder it or use it in circuits , then the whole package is enclosed in a plastic case to prevent moisture and reaction with air.

2. METAL FILM :
Metal film resistors are made by depositing vaporized metal in vacuum on a ceramic core rod. These types of resistors are very reliable,have high tolerance and also have high temperature coefficient.

3. WIRE WOUND:
Wire wound resistor are made by winding a metal wire around a ceramic core. The metal wire is an alloy of various metals based on the characteristics and resistance of the resistor required. These types of resistor have high stability and can also withstand high powers .

VARIABLE RESISTORS:
A variable resistor is a device that is used to change the resistance according to our needs in an electronic circuit. It can be used as a three terminal as well as a two terminal device. There are mainly three types of variable resistors : Potentiometer Rheostat Presets

COLOUR CODE FOR 4-BAND RESISTORS:

CALCULATION OF RESISTOR VALUES:


The "left-hand" or the most significant coloured band is the band which is nearest to a connecting lead with the colour coded bands being read from left-to-right as follows:-

Digit, Digit, Multiplier, Tolerance= Color, Color x 10 color tolerance in

For example:- A resistor has the following colored markings

Brown Black Green Golden = 1 0 5 5% = 1 0 x 105 5% = 1 M 5%

CAPACITOR:
A capacitor is a passive two terminal component which

stores electric charge. This component consists of two conductors which are separated by a dielectric medium.

TYPES OF CAPACITOR:
1. FIXED CAPACITOR

2. VARIABLE CAPACITOR

FIXED CAPACITOR:

A fixed capacitor possesses a fixed adjusted. A fixed capacitor material used as or electrolyte.

is constructed in such manner that it value of capacitance which cannot be is classified according to the type of its dielectric, such as paper, oil, mica,

(i) CERAMIC CAPACITORS Ceramic Capacitors are made by coating


two sides of a small porcelain with silver and are then stacked together to make a capacitor. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric constant (High-K) and are available so that relatively high capacitances can be obtained in a small physical size 101 pf =10 101 10 -12 F = 102 10 -610-6 = 10-4 10-6 = .0001 uF

(ii)ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used when very large capacitance values are required. Here instead of using a very thin metallic film layer for one of the electrodes, a semi-liquid electrolyte solution in the form of a jelly or paste is used which serves as the second electrode

VARIABLE CAPACITOR:
A variable Capacitor is a special type of capacitor, most commonly used for tuning radios, which allows the amount of electrical charge it can hold to be altered over a certain range, measured in a unit known as Farads. There are mainly two types of variable capacitor:1. Gang capacitor 2. Trimmer

DIODE: A diode is a specialized electronic


component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon & germanium. Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters, voltage regulators, switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators.

TESTING OF DIODES :
Connect the Red test lead of multimeter to the V-

input

connector and black test lead to the common input connector. Set function/range switch to the diode test position Connect the test lead to the device. The red lead is positive and black lead is negative. When connect this two leads to the device ,if over range is displayed ,the junction is open, if a low reading is obtained ,it indicates the barrier voltage of the diode.

TRANSISTOR :
Transistor is a semiconductor device,

having three or more terminals attached to electrode regions, in which current flowing between two electrodes is controlled by a voltage or current applied to one or more specified electrodes. The device is capable of amplification, switching, detection etc.

There are two types of BJT : N-P-N P-N-P

TESTING OF BJT :
Bipolar transistor can be tested in the same manner as diode,

junction formed between the base and emitter and the base and collector of the transistor.
Measurement between the collector and emitter also made to

determine if a short is present

PIN IDENTIFICATION OF ICS:


Most manufactures use the pin designation for three types of packages. i) Flat package ii) Dual in-line package iii) Metal can package One end of IC marked with a dot or notch ,ridge etc on the package .Pin number 1 is always the upper left hand pin on the end of IC that includes the notch or ridge.

DIFFERENT IC PACKAGES:

PRECAUTION: All equipments and components should be handled carefully.

CONCLUSION :

EXPERIMENT -2
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT :
Familiarize in the use CRO,Function generator,Multimeter,and Dc regulalated power supply.

OBJECTIVE :
Study of Oscilloscope , Function generator ,Dc regulated

power supply ,Bread board , multimeter and familiarize with front panel control and their function. Measure the amplitude and frequency of various wave form (sine , square and triangular).

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL.NO. EQUIPMENT
CATHOD RAY OSCILLOSCOPE

SPECIFICATION
20 MHZ/30 MHZ

QUANTITY
1

1
2

FUNCTION GENERATOR

1 MHZ

DC REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

0 30 V

DIGITAL MULTIMETER

CRO PROBES

CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE :

FRONT AND REAR PANEL CONTROLS OF CRO:


POWER ON : Puts the instrument to main supply with LED indication

INTENSITY : Control the brightness of the display. FOCUS :

Control the sharpness of the display.

TIME-BASE : 18 step switch to enable selection of 18 calibrated sweep from

0.5u sec/div to 0.2 sec/div in 1,2,3 sequence.


TIME BASE VARIABLE : In calibrated position (CCW)the selected sweep speed

holds indicated calibration clockwise, it extends the sweep by 2.5 times approx, with LED indication.
HOLD OFF : Provides 4:1 hold-off to enhance HF & complex signal triggering. POSITION/X5 : Controls the horizontal position of the display .When this

control is pulled ,it magnifies the sweep 5 times, with LED indication.

LEVEL : Variable control ,select the trigger point on the displayed wave form.

AUTO/NORM : In auto mode ,trace is displayed in absence of any input

signal. The display is then automatically triggered for signal above 30 Hz depending upon correct setting of trigger level control.
CH1/CH2 : Select s trigger signal INT mode derived from CH1 or CH2 inputs .
AC/DC/GND : Select input coupling /grounding (Ground the amplifier input

but input signal is open circuited.)


SWP/X-Y : When this switch is pressed ,converts CH2 input into X- channel

and enable use of the scope as on X-Y scope(Y input vin CH1) in released position .
Y POSITION/X5 : Controls the vertical position of the display. When the

control is pulled ,it magnifies the vertical sensitivity by 5 times with LED indication.

DUAL/CH1 : When pressed CH1 trace is selected. DUAL/CH2 : When pressed CH2 trace is selected. CT :

Converts scope into a component tester.

LINE FUSE: For 230 v operation use 500 mA slow blow fuse. GND :

Ground terminal black.

FUNCTION GENERATOR:

FRONT AND REAR PANEL CONTROLS OF FUNCTION GENERATOR :


DISPLAY : 4 digit seven segment display is provided on front panel to observe

function generator frequency .Frequency unit is indicated by Hz.


FREQUENCY RANGE: Pushing one of the push button switches at a time ,select the

desired frequency from the frequency generator in decade.


FREQUENCY COARSE AND FINE : Set the desired frequency of the function between

0.1 to 1 times the frequency range value selected .User can accurately set the desired frequency using fine control knob.
FUNCTION SWITCH : Three interlocking pushbutton switches provides selection of the

desired output waveforms. Pressing one switch will release the switch previously pressed. When all switches are pressed the DC function is selected. Sine , square, and triangular waveforms are provided, satisfying most application.
DUTY CYCLE : Time symmetry of the output waveforms as well as the TTL pulse output

is controlled by the duty cycle potentiometer.. This unique feature provides the ramp waveforms, variable pulse width and variable duty cycle pulses and skewed sine waves.

DC OFFSET : This is knob with ON/OFF control .A DC OFFSET control is provided to allow

the Dc level of the output waveforms to be set as desired.


ATTENUATION: There are two attn. push button switches providing attenuation of 20 dB

and 40 dB.When both are pressed it gives total attenuation of 60dB.


LEVEL FINE : This knob is used to set the desired amplitude level function output signal .The

level control provides 20 dB (approx)of attenuation to the output waveforms selected by the function switch.
OUTPUT : Sine ,triangular, square ramp and pulse waveforms are provided up to 20 Vp-p

amplitude at the FUNC.OUT BNC. The output impedance is 50.


FREQ./Vp-p : This push button switch is used to select either frequency or peak-peak

amplitude mode for display. On pressing this switch amplitude Vp-p mode is selected and when release the button frequency mode id selected.
POWER ON/OFF SWITCH : This switch is used to turn the instrument ON or OFF. MAINS IN : The instrument is powered by connecting a main cord to this 3 pin socket FUSE : This is 250 mA fast blow fuse for protection

DC REGULATED POWER SUPPLY:

TURN ON SETTING PROCEDURE OF REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY


Switch on the power on button. Ensure that DC output switch is set to present V (set) .

Adjust the VOLTAGE controls and CURRENT controls till the desired voltage

and current is indicated on the digital panel meter. A green LED light to indicate O to ON.
Press the DC output switch to ON pressed mode. A green LED will light to

indicate output voltage. The present voltage is now available at the load terminals. Voltage or current can be selected between V/A push switch.

CONSTANT VOLTAGE MODE (CV) : Adjust desired voltage and current in SET mode. Press the SET/ON push switch in pressed mode (ON). In CV mode CV LED should glow.

CONSTANT CURRENT MODE:


Adjust desired voltage and current in SET mode. Press the SET/ON push switch in pressed mode (ON).

Connect the proper load at the terminal output.


In CC mode CC LED should glow. If a load change causes the voltage limit to be exceeded, the power

supply will automatically cross over to the constant voltage output at present voltage limit and output voltage will drop proportionately .In setting the voltage limit ,allowance must be made for high peak voltage which can cause unwanted cross over.

MULTIMETER:

MULTIMETER:
A multimeter is nothing but combination of a volt meter, ammeter and ohm
meter .
So it can measure voltage ,current and resistance. In addition to above parameter can measure capacitance ,frequency, and also

diode and continuity testing facilities.


it has rotary switching arrangements ,hence any desired range ; desired

parameter can selected while making measurement. The range of our multimeter as given below :
Direct and alternating voltage from 30 mV..1000V.

Direct and alternating current from 300uA..10.00A


Resistance from 30 30 M. Capacitance from 30 nF .. 30uF. Frequency from 300 Hz 100 KHz

BREAD BOARD:

MEASUREMENT OF AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY:


HOW TO CALCULATE VP-P FOR A UNKNOWN SIGNAL FROM CRO: VP-P = No of division in Y-axis of the signal VOLT/DIV

Amplitude= VP-P/2

HOW TO CALCULATE TIME-PERIOD FOR A UNKNOWN SIGNAL FROM CRO:

Time period = No of division in X- axis of one cycle of the signal TIME/DIV FREQUENCY = 1/Time period

MEASUREMENT OF AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY TABULATION:


FUNCTION AMPLITUDE TIME PERIOD FREQUENCY FROM CRO

FREQ.FROM FG.

PRECAUTION: Handle the CRO ,Function generator, DC regulated power supply, digital multimeter carefully. CONCLUSION :