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- Dr.

Neetu Jain

What is Training?
Difference between Training & Development

Types of Training
Benefits of Training

Role of Training in a knowledge world /Need for Training

Training and Development as instrument for sustained

competitive advantage

What is Training
Training refers to a planned effort by a company to

facilitate employees learning of job related competencies.

Training is the learning experience in that it seeks a

relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. -S.P.Robbins

Training is an act of increasing the knowledge and skill

of an employee for doing a particular job. - E.B.Flippo.

Training is the process by which man is fitted for the

particular job it has to perform Dale Yoder.

The organized procedure by which people learn

knowledge and/ skill for a definite purpose. -Dale S.Beach.

Difference between Training & Development

According to Yoder, although the terms T &D appear synonymous ,

there is a recognised difference between these concepts. employees are imparted job skills.

Employee training relates to the process where by non managerial

- Mc Farland

Development is a process by which managerial personnel accomplish

not merely skills(generalised & conceptual) in their present jobs but also competence for prospective higher responsibilities.

Training provides employees with specific skills or helps them to

overcome deficiencies in their present performance. & Development provides employees with the abilities the organisation will need in the future. - Fitzgerald

Dunn and Stephens :

Training refers to the organisations effort to improve an

individuals ability to perform a job or organisational role.

Whereas Development refers to the organisations effort

(and the individuals own efforts )to enhance an individuals abilities to advance in his organisation to perform additional job duties.

Training is job related leading to observable change in the

behavior of the trainee, although development is still job related, it is much broader in scope.It enhances general knowledge related to a job as well as ability to adapt to a change. Thus training is narrow in scope. -Fitzgerald

Table Training and Development Compared

Point of Distinction Training


Conceptual and philosophical
Managerial personnel


Technical and mechanical

Non-managerial personnel




Time period

Short-term one shot affair

Specific, job related skills

Long-term continuous process



Total personality


Nature of the process Purpose

Reactive process

Proactive process


To meet current needs

To meet future needs




Role of Training in a knowledge world / Benefits

Higher Productivity. Training helps to improve the level of performance Better Quality of work. The best methods are standardized and taught to employees. Improve the quality of product or service. Less Learning Period. Employees can more quickly reach the acceptable level of performance. They need not waste their time and efforts in learning through trial and error. Cost Reduction. Trained employees make more economical use of materials and machinery. Reduction in wastage and spoilage. Low Accident Rate. Trained personnel adopt the right work methods and make use of the prescribed safety devices. High Morale. Proper training can develop positive attitudes among employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to a rise in the earning and job security of employees. Personal Growth. Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of the participants Organisational Climate. A sound training programme helps to improve the climate of an organization. Industrial relations and discipline are improved.




Training and Development as instruments for sustained

competitive advantage
Investment in training can help gain competitive advantage.(necessity not luxury)

Boston Pizza International, Verizone Wireless, John Wieland homes and neighbourhood Home Depot , & Medtronic illustrate how training can contribute to companies competitiveness as trg has helped them in:
grow the business, and improve customer service, by providing employees with the knowledge and skills

they need to be successful

Although they are in different types of businesses, they each have training practices that have helped them gain a competitive advantage in their markets.

Issues affecting companies and influencing training practices: customer service employee retention and growth doing more with less
quality and productivity

VERIZON: CSE receive 96 hrs of trg every yr .Trg takes a blended learning approach that involves simulation, classroom instruction and OJT. As a result of this trg, new customer service emps are meeting perf. goals faster and customers who call Verizon wireless with some question get prompt and friendly service becoz of their extensive trg .
MEDTRONIC: Set a goal of 15% annual growth, a goal of doubling the size of the company in five years. Engages employees in L&D, which links them to the co. mission to restore many people to full and productive lives and to make sure that products are available to patients who need them. BOSTON PIZZA INTERNATIONAL: 172 restaurants in Canada, and US. T& D Director noticed a skill gap in the stores mgr. Most of the mgrs understand boston pizza concept but lack the soft skills needed to be successful mgrs. As a result boston pizza college was started. At this college mgrs learn and practice skills needed for successful store mgt including professional conduct and coaching. This college has paid dividends. Reports from shoppers and quality assurance visits have improved since the trg began.also retention has increased in an industry where turnover is very high.

HOME DEPOT: is the worlds largest home improvement retailer with over 1500 stores in the U.S ,Canada and Merxico.Every yr abt 30000 Home depot associates participate in T & D activities designed to help their career and improve the cos productivity and cust satisfaction.

Every associate has a position curriculum which they are supposed to complete. The trg activities include printed material distributed to stores, onsite instructions and e learning prgs. co is providing trg to improve sales perf in the stores and to build leaders within the CO.
The Tata Management Training Centre (TMTC):

The Centre is today renowned as one of the foremost management training facilities in the country with prestigious national and international affiliations. TMTC is committed to knowledge sharing, personality development, training corporate leaders and developing managers

Gyansarovar has a collection of 14,000 titles, subscribes to 35 specialist Indian and foreign journals as well as popular magazines. It provides separate sections for reading or browsing through books, journals and viewing videos

Training and Performance: Todays Emphasis

Training is used to improve employee performance. This leads to improved

business results

Providing educational opportunities for all employees An on-going process of performance improvement that is directly measurable not one-time training events The need to demonstrate the benefits of training to executives, managers, and trainees Learning as a lifelong event
senior management, training managers, and employees have ownership

Training used to help attain strategic business objectives helps companies gain a competitive advantage

Train them to the point where you may loose them, and

then you wont loose them.This is training paradox. - Marks and Spencers can buy them for a short time but what keeps people excited is growing and learning. - HP Director of Education simultaneously increases his job security and desire to stay with the current employer.

Whats going to entice them away? Money? May be you

Increasing an individuals employability outside the co.

Where vision is one year, Cultivate flowers Where vision is ten years, Cultivate trees Where vision is eternity, Cultivate people