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Approaches to System Development

Overview

System development project

Planned undertaking with fixed beginning and end

Produces desired result or product


Can be a large job with thousands of hours of effort or a small one-month project

Successful development project


Provides a detailed plan to follow Organized, methodical sequence of tasks and activities

Produces reliable, robust, and efficient system

The Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)


Systems

development life cycle (SDLC)

Provides overall framework for managing systems development process

Two

main approaches to SDLC

Predictive approach assumes project can be planned out in advance Adaptive approach more flexible, assumes project cannot be planned out in advance

All

projects use some variation of SDLC


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Choosing the Predictive vs. Adaptive Approach to the SDLC

Traditional Predictive Approach to the SDLC


Project

planning initiate, ensure feasibility, plan schedule, obtain approval for project understand business needs and processing requirements define solution system based on requirements and analysis decisions construct, test, train users, and install new system keep system running and improve
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Analysis Design

Implementation Support

Information System Development Phases

Waterfall Approach to the SDLC

Newer Adaptive Approaches to the SDLC

Based on spiral model

Project cycles through development activities over and over until project is complete Prototype created by end of each cycle Focuses on mitigating risk

Iteration Work activities are repeated


Each iteration refines previous result Approach assumes no one gets it right the first time There are a series of mini projects for each iteration
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The Spiral Life Cycle Model

Iteration of System Development Activities

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Activities of Each SDLC Phase


Predictive Activities Phases Phases

or adaptive approach use SDLC

of each phase are similar

are not always sequential can overlap

Activities

across phases can be done within an

iteration

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Activities of Planning Phase of SDLC


Define

business problem and scope detailed project schedule project feasibility

Produce Confirm

Economic, organizational, technical, resource, and schedule

Staff

the project (resource management)

Launch

project official announcement


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Activities of Analysis Phase of SDLC


Gather Define Build

information to learn problem domain system requirements

prototypes for discovery of requirements requirements and evaluate alternatives

Prioritize

Generate

Review

recommendations with management


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Activities of Design Phase of SDLC


Design Design Design Design Design

and integrate the network the application architecture the user interfaces the system interfaces and integrate the database for design details

Prototype Design

and integrate system controls


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Activities of Implementation Phase of SDLC


Construct

software components

Verify

and test
data

Convert

Train

users and document the system the system


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Install

Activities of Support Phase of SDLC


Maintain

system

Small patches, repairs, and updates

Enhance

system

Small upgrades or enhancements to expand system capabilities Larger enhancements may require separate development project

Support

users

Help desk and/or support team


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