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Democritus (460-370 BC)

To understand the very large, we must understand the very small.

proposed that all matter was made of tiny indivisible particles, which he named atomos meaning indivisible, indestructible and unchangeable. did not carry out any experiments to see if his theory was correct, he based his theories on his observations

John Dalton (1766-1844)

Dalton stated that elements consisted of tiny particles called atoms He was able to supply experimental results to forcefully revive the idea of the atom He also called the elements pure substances because all atoms of an element were identical and that in particular they had the same mass.

We might as well attempt to introduce a new planet into the solar system, or to annihilate one already in existence, as to create or destroy a particle of hydrogen

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)

formulated the Law of Conservation of Matter: "Matter is neither gained nor lost during a chemical reaction." - the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products

Joseph Louis Proust (1754-1826)

formulated the Law of Constant Proportions: "In a compound, the constituent elements are always present in a definite proportion by weight."

J.J. Thomson (1856 - 1940)

In 1897, he used a gas discharged tube to study cathode rays and was able to show that cathode rays are usually made up of negatively charged particles called electrons

Thomson realized that two factors affected the deflection of the electrons: 1. Mass (m) of the electrons The greater the mass, the less the deflection 2. Charge (e) on the electrons The greater the charge, the greater the deflection Thomson was not able to measure either the charge or mass separately, but he was able to determine the ratio between the two



voltage source

By adding an electric field he found that the moving pieces were negative.

The Plum Pudding Model

Spherical cloud of Positive charge

Proposed by Lord Kelvin and J.J. Thomson Electrons were seen as being randomly distributed in a sphere of positive charge

Millikans Experiment


Microscope Metal Plates

Millikans Experiment
Atomizer Oil droplets



Millikans Experiment

Atomizer Oil droplets



Millikans Experiment

X-rays X-rays give some drops a charge by knocking off electrons

Millikans Experiment

Millikans Experiment

They put an electric charge on the plates

Millikans Experiment

Some drops would hover

Millikans Experiment
+ Some drops would hover

+ +

Millikans Experiment

From the mass of the drop and the charge on the plates, he calculated the charge on an electron

Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) In 1909 Rutherford undertook a series of experiments He fired a (alpha) particles at a very thin sample of gold foil According to the Thomson model the a particles would only be slightly deflected Rutherford discovered that they were deflected through large angles and could even be reflected straight back to the source

Most particles flew right through the foil as if there were nothing there The foil was mostly empty space A small number of particles were bounced back to their source There must be a small, dense nucleus with a positive charge


dense, positively-charged nucleus negatively-charged electrons orbiting the nucleus

Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962)

After Rutherfords discovery, Bohr proposed that electrons travel in definite orbits around the nucleus. studied how atoms react to light; developed a theory of how electrons moved around the nucleus in certain paths or energy levels.

Planetary model

Louis de Broglie ( 1892-1987)

extended to matter the concept that like light, matter must be both a particle and a wave confirmed in experiments that showed electron beams could be diffracted or bent as they passed through a slit much like light could

Erwin Schrdinger (1887-1961)

developed an equation that relates the wavelength of an electron to its energy which describes the probability that an electron will be at a certain point in space.

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)

pointed out that it is impossible to know both the exact position and the exact momentum of an object at the same time (Uncertainty Principle) effectively destroys the idea of electrons traveling around in neat orbits. ;any electron that is subjected to photons will have its momentum and position affected.

Daltons model (1803)

Thomsons plum-pudding model (1897)

Rutherfords model (1909)

Bohrs model (1913)

Charge-cloud model (present)

An atom is a minute electrically neutral particle with a massive positive core called nucleus and is surrounded by revolving electrons Atoms have extremely small masses. Because it would be cumbersome to continually have to express such small masses in grams, we instead use a unit called amu (atomic mass unit)

1 amu = 1.66054 X 10-24 g = 1/12 of the mass of C-12 atom

electron proton

-1.602 x 10-19 C +1.602 x 10-19 C

9.109 x 10-28 g 1.67266 x10-24 g

Joseph John Thomson Ernest Rutherford


1.67493 x 10-24 g

James Chadwick

An atom is represented as: A-mass number Z-atomic number X- symbol of element

The isotopic composition of an element is always expressed on a percentage basis in terms of the relative number of atoms of the various isotopes present % abundance = x 100

The boron isotopes 10B and 11B have % abundances of 19.91 and 80.09 respectively. This means that if you could count 10,000 boron atoms from an average natural sample, 1991 of them would have a mass of 10.0129 amu and 8009 would have a mass of 11.0093 amu. Isotopic abundances can be determined by mass spectrometer

Orbital a region of space where there is a probability of finding an electron



1 2 3 4

s s p s p d s p d f

1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 4 9

8 18 32


Aufbau Principle filling up an orbital in the order of increasing energy

Electron Configuration Mnemonics

shows how electrons are distributed among various atomic orbitals Ways of Writing Electron Configuration: 1. orbital method (spectroscopic notation) use electron configuration mnemonics 2. rectangle arrow or arrow-box method ( orbital -box diagram) uses boxes or rectangles to represent orbitals and arrows as electrons. HUNDS RULE: Each orbital is filled up by a single electron before any pairing can occur. 3. core method uses the noble gas as core

Using the three methods , show the electron configuration of 14N7 1.) orbital method(spectroscopic notation): 1s2 2s2 2p3 2.) orbital box diagram:

3.) core method : [ He ] 2s2 2p3