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It is a phase change phenomenon where vapor converts into Liquid. Condensation occurs when the temperature of a vapor is reduced below its saturation temperature Tsat.

This usually done by bringing vapor into contact with solid surface whose temperature Ts is below vapor saturation temperature Tsat. Condensation can also occur on the free surface of a liquid or even in a gas when the temperature of the liquid or gas to which the vapor is exposed is below Tsat.

Types of Condensation
Film condensation Dropwise condensation

Film Wise Condensation on a Vertical Plate

Condensate formation pattern on different geometries

Flow Regime

Film condensation on an Inclined plate