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Management process and functions Managerial skills Managerial roles

Management process
Management is a process

A process involves a series of operations or actions

necessary to achieve certain results. Features: Planning Continuity Controlling Circular Social Composite Directing



Classification of managerial functions

Henri Fayol Planning, organising, commanding,

coordinating and controlling.

R C Davis Planning, organising and coordination is part

of control.
Luther Gullick gave a keyword POSDCORB which

stands for Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting.
Koontz and ODonnell Planning, organising, staffing,

directing and controlling.

Ernest Dale Planning, organising, staffing, directing,

controlling, innovation and representation.

Description of Management functions 1. Planning: Planning involves determining the objectives and selecting a course of action to achieve them.

Organising: Organising is the process of establishing harmonious authority-responsibility relationships among the members of the enterprise.
Staffing: Staffing is the process of filling all positions in the organisation with adequate and qualified personnel. Directing: Directing involves guiding, supervising, motivating and leading people towards the attainment of planned targets of performance. Controlling: Controlling is the process of ensuring that the organisation is moving in the desired direction and that progress is being made towards the achievement of goals.




The management process

Planning Organising

Men Money Materials Machinery Methods

Process of management

Goods & services Productivity Growth Taxes Employment

Staffing Directing


Management functions and Managerial levels

Top management


Middle management



Supervisory management


Levels of management

Top management: consists of Board of directors accountable to shareholders Chief executive overall management of companys operations

Main functions: 1. To analyse and interpret changes in the external environment of the company. 2. To establish long-term corporate plans 3. To formulate and approve budget. 4. To design organisation structure 5. To appoint departmental managers 6. To provide overall direction and leadership to the company 7. To exercise overall review and control 8. To represent the company to the outside world 9. To decide on distribution of profits.

Middle management:

consists of sectional heads

Main functions: 1. To interpret and explain the plans and policies formulated by top management 2. To monitor and control the operating performance 3. To train, motivate and develop supervisory management 4. To lay down rules and regulations for the lower level employees

Supervisory management

Consists of supervisors, foremen, sales officers, accounts officers, purchase officers, etc. Main functions: 1. To plan day-to-day activities. 2. To assign jobs to workers and plan for their training. 3. To issue orders and instructions. 4. To supervise and control workers operations. 5. To arrange materials and tools. 6. To advice and assist workers by solving their problems 7. To maintain discipline and good human relations among workers, etc.

Skills of a manager
Technical skills Refer to the ability and knowledge in using the

equipment, techniques and procedures involved in performing specific tasks.

Require specialised knowledge and proficiency in the

mechanics of a particular job

Human skills:

Consists of the ability to work effectively with other people both as individuals and as members of a group. These are required to win cooperation of others and to build effective work teams.
Conceptual skills

Comprise the ability to see the whole organisation and the interrelationships between its parts. Such skills help the manager to conceptualise the environment, to analyse the forces working in a situation and to take a broad and foresighted view of the organisation.


Technical skill Jobs Human skills People Conceptual skills - Ideas Interrelationship of skills with levels of management Top management

Conceptual skill Human skill

Middle management Lower management

Technical skill

Roles of manager:
Henry Minzberg

Figurehead: a manager performs symbolic duties required by the status of his office. Eg. Making speeches, bestowing honours, inaugurating offices, welcoming official visitors, distributing gifts to retiring employees.


Leader: define the managements relationship with his own subordinates. Eg. Directing and controlling the work of subordinates. Liaison: a managers relationship with outsiders. Eg. With other organisations, government, industry groups.


4. Monitor: seeking and receiving information about the organisation and external events. Eg, Reading periodicals, observational tours. 5. Disseminator: transmitting information and judgements to the members of the organisation. Eg, Forwarding mail, review sessions, meetings.

Spokesperson: a manager speaks for his organisation. Eg, Board meeting, meeting trade unions.


Entrepreneur: change initiator / agent. Eg, feasibility study for setting up a new plant.

8. Disturbance handler: taking charge when the organisation faces a crisis. Eg, handling conflicts, complaints and competitive actions. 9. Resource allocator: manager approves budgets and schedules, set priorities and distributes resources. 10. Negotiator: a manager bargains with suppliers, dealers, trade unions, agents. Thus,

Interpersonal roles: Figurehead, Leader, Liaison Informational roles: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesman Decisional roles: Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource allocator, Negotiator.